How to format your references using the Zoology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Zoology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ma, E., 2004. Materials science. Watching the nanograins roll. Science 305, 623–624.
A journal article with 2 authors
Luoto, T.P., Nevalainen, L., 2013. Long-term water temperature reconstructions from mountain lakes with different catchment and morphometric features. Sci. Rep. 3, 2488.
A journal article with 3 authors
Froemke, R.C., Merzenich, M.M., Schreiner, C.E., 2007. A synaptic memory trace for cortical receptive field plasticity. Nature 450, 425–429.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Tang, H.X., Masmanidis, S., Kawakami, R.K., Awschalom, D.D., Roukes, M.L., 2004. Negative intrinsic resistivity of an individual domain wall in epitaxial (Ga,Mn)As microdevices. Nature 431, 52–56.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Maguire, L., Smith, E., 2012. 30 Great Myths about Shakespeare. Blackwell Publishing Ltd., Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Zaman, H.B., Robinson, P., Petrou, M., Olivier, P., Shih, T.K., Velastin, S., Nyström, I. (Eds.), 2011. Visual Informatics: Sustaining Research and Innovations: Second International Visual Informatics Conference, IVIC 2011, Selangor, Malaysia, November 9-11, 2011, Proceedings, Part II, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Molina, P., Gavete, L., Vivanco, M.G., Palomino, I., Gavete, M.L., Ureña, F., Benito, J.J., 2011. A Comparison of Different Advective Solvers in the CHIMERE Air Quality Model, in: Murgante, B., Gervasi, O., Iglesias, A., Taniar, D., Apduhan, B.O. (Eds.), Computational Science and Its Applications - ICCSA 2011: International Conference, Santander, Spain, June 20-23, 2011. Proceedings, Part IV, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 35–49.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Zoology.

Blog post
Evans, K., 2017. This Startup Cleans Up Algae From Infested Lakes And Uses It To Make Shoes [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1979. A Methodology for Reviewing Computer Software (No. 090837). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rodriguez, J.M., 2011. A recruitment campaign for Latino non-kin foster parents: A grant proposal (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K., 2003. Reclaiming a Shabby Block of Maritime History. New York Times 147.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ma, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Luoto and Nevalainen, 2013; Ma, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Luoto and Nevalainen, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Tang et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleZoology
AbbreviationZoology (Jena)
ISSN (print)0944-2006
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology

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