How to format your references using the Zoology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Zoology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Szpiro, G., 2013. Economics: Value judgements. Nature 500, 521–523.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dietrich, W.E., Perron, J.T., 2006. The search for a topographic signature of life. Nature 439, 411–418.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ottosen, S., Herrera, F.J., Triezenberg, S.J., 2002. Transcription. Proteasome parts at gene promoters. Science 296, 479–481.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Bassett, S.E., Milne, G.A., Mitrovica, J.X., Clark, P.U., 2005. Ice sheet and solid Earth influences on far-field sea-level histories. Science 309, 925–928.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Goshtasby, A.A., 2017. Theory and Applications of Image Registration. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Shanley, T.P., Wong, H.R., Wheeler, D.S. (Eds.), 2009. Cardiovascular Pediatric Critical Illness and Injury. Springer, London.
A chapter in an edited book
Genovese, E., Leonardi, A., Callegari, L., Angeretti, M.G., Albrizio, M., Spanò, E., Fugazzola, C., 2011. Major and Minor Pediatric Traumatic Musculotendinous Injuries, in: Martino, F., Defilippi, C., Caudana, R. (Eds.), Imaging of Pediatric Bone and Joint Trauma. Springer, Milano, pp. 69–81.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Zoology.

Blog post
Hamilton, K., 2016. Next Time You Ask The Doctor For Some Antibiotics – Consider Whether You’re Being Immoral [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2011. DHS Science and Technology: Additional Steps Needed to Ensure Test and Evaluation Requirements Are Met (No. GAO-11-596). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Masuyama, G., 2010. The Bird Is A Word (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Kelly, T., 2000. FOLLOWING UP. New York Times 135.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Szpiro, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Dietrich and Perron, 2006; Szpiro, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Dietrich and Perron, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Bassett et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleZoology
AbbreviationZoology (Jena)
ISSN (print)0944-2006
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology

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