How to format your references using the Zoology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Zoology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jewkes, R., 2010. HIV/AIDS. Gender inequities must be addressed in HIV prevention. Science 329, 145–147.
A journal article with 2 authors
Graf, T., Enver, T., 2009. Forcing cells to change lineages. Nature 462, 587–594.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zheng, R.-L., Zhang, H., Jiang, W.-L., 2014. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha 308G>A polymorphism and risk of rheumatic heart disease: a meta-analysis. Sci. Rep. 4, 4731.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Li, D., Liu, H., Zeng, S., Wang, C., Wu, Z., Zhang, P., Yan, J., 2014. Quantum molecular dynamics study of expanded beryllium: evolution from warm dense matter to atomic fluid. Sci. Rep. 4, 5898.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
zur Hausen, H., 2006. Infections Causing Human Cancer. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG.
An edited book
Popper, A.N., Fay, R.R. (Eds.), 2014. Perspectives on Auditory Research, Springer Handbook of Auditory Research. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Riegl, B., Poiriez, A., Janson, X., Bergman, K.L., 2010. The Gulf: Facies Belts, Physical, Chemical, and Biological Parameters of Sedimentation on a Carbonate Ramp, in: Westphal, H., Riegl, B., Eberli, G.P. (Eds.), Carbonate Depositional Systems: Assessing Dimensions and Controlling Parameters: The Bahamas, Belize and the Persian/Arabian Gulf. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 145–213.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Zoology.

Blog post
Andrews, R., 2017. Leaked Republican Bill Aims To “Completely Abolish” The EPA [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1988. Space Shuttle: Changes to the Solid Rocket Motor Contract (No. NSIAD-88-203). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Glasgow, H.L., 2015. Design and Selection of Probes for In Vivo Molecular Targeting and Imaging (Doctoral dissertation). University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, R.K.R., whose most recent book of poems is ’ ’Not This Island Music, Literature, ’ ’ Teaches, writing at Bard College, 1987. I AM NOT A HALFBACK. New York Times 79.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Jewkes, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Graf and Enver, 2009; Jewkes, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Graf and Enver, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Li et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleZoology
AbbreviationZoology (Jena)
ISSN (print)0944-2006
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology

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