How to format your references using the Zoology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Zoology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Okasha, S., 2010. Altruism researchers must cooperate. Nature 467, 653–655.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gan, J., Appenzeller, T., 2014. 2013 Visualization Challenge. Introduction. Science 343, 599.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gruber, N., Keeling, C.D., Bates, N.R., 2002. Interannual variability in the North Atlantic Ocean carbon sink. Science 298, 2374–2378.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Savina, M.R., Davis, A.M., Tripa, C.E., Pellin, M.J., Gallino, R., Lewis, R.S., Amari, S., 2004. Extinct technetium in silicon carbide stardust grains: implications for stellar nucleosynthesis. Science 303, 649–652.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pandrea, N., Stănescu, N.-D., 2015. Dynamics of the Rigid Solid with General Constraints by a Multibody Approach. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Duplantier, B., Rivasseau, V. (Eds.), 2015. Henri Poincaré, 1912–2012: Poincaré Seminar 2012, Progress in Mathematical Physics. Springer, Basel.
A chapter in an edited book
Ivanov, A.O., Mishchenko, A.S., Tuzhilin, A.A., 2015. Critical Analysis of Amino Acids and Polypeptides Geometry, in: Sadovnichiy, V.A., Zgurovsky, M.Z. (Eds.), Continuous and Distributed Systems II: Theory and Applications, Studies in Systems, Decision and Control. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 37–81.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Zoology.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2014. The Gut Microbe That Protects Against Peanut Allergies [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2003. Electronic Government: Progress in Promoting Adoption of Smart Card Technology (No. GAO-03-144). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mohajer, R., 2012. A transcendental approach to John Coltrane: applying concepts of spirituality to Giant Steps into the Cosmos (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Nir, S.M., 2017. Police Seek Photos of Central Park Related to 2016 Blast That Destroyed a Tourist’s Leg. New York Times A17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Okasha, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Gan and Appenzeller, 2014; Okasha, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gan and Appenzeller, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Savina et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleZoology
AbbreviationZoology (Jena)
ISSN (print)0944-2006
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology

Other styles