How to format your references using the Zoology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Zoology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bagla, P., 2000. PALEONTOLOGY: Team Rejects Claim of Early Indian Fossils. Science 289, 1273a.
A journal article with 2 authors
Humphries, M.J., Mould, A.P., 2001. Structure. An anthropomorphic integrin. Science 294, 316–317.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bland-Hawthorn, J., Harwit, A., Harwit, M., 2002. Astronomy. Laser telemetry from space. Science 297, 523.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Mayntz, D., Raubenheimer, D., Salomon, M., Toft, S., Simpson, S.J., 2005. Nutrient-specific foraging in invertebrate predators. Science 307, 111–113.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Obayya, S., 2010. Computational Photonics. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Karminsky, A., 2016. Handbook of Ratings: Approaches to Ratings in the Economy, Sports, and Society. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Carey, R.M., Siragy, H.M., 2007. Angiotensin AT2 Receptors in Blood Pressure Regulation, in: Carey, R.M. (Ed.), Hypertension and Hormone Mechanisms. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, pp. 75–89.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Zoology.

Blog post
Evans, K., 2016. Round The World Trip Planned For First Boat Powered Entirely By Green Energy [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1989. Meeting the Aging Aircraft Challenge: Status and Opportunities (No. T-RCED-90-2). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tanag, H.B., 2017. Building bridges of hope after loss: A self-directed workbook for foster parents (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Silver, N., 2012. The Weatherman Is Not a Moron. New York Times MM34.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bagla, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Bagla, 2000; Humphries and Mould, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Humphries and Mould, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Mayntz et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleZoology
AbbreviationZoology (Jena)
ISSN (print)0944-2006
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology

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