How to format your references using the Zoology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Zoology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
de Lozanne, A., 2004. Physics. Music of the spheres at the atomic scale. Science 305, 348–349.
A journal article with 2 authors
Goldenfeld, N., Pace, N.R., 2013. Retrospective. Carl R. Woese (1928-2012). Science 339, 661.
A journal article with 3 authors
Malinowski, J.T., Sharpe, R.J., Johnson, J.S., 2013. Enantioselective synthesis of pactamycin, a complex antitumor antibiotic. Science 340, 180–182.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hartschuh, A., Pedrosa, H.N., Novotny, L., Krauss, T.D., 2003. Simultaneous fluorescence and Raman scattering from single carbon nanotubes. Science 301, 1354–1356.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Smith, G.S., 2013. Straight to the Top. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Smith, H., McDermott, J.C. (Eds.), 2016. The Foxfire Approach: Inspiration for Classrooms and Beyond. SensePublishers, Rotterdam.
A chapter in an edited book
Salvati, S., 2009. Recognizability in the Simply Typed Lambda-Calculus, in: Ono, H., Kanazawa, M., Queiroz, R. de (Eds.), Logic, Language, Information and Computation: 16th International Workshop, WoLLIC 2009, Tokyo, Japan, June 21-24, 2009. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 48–60.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Zoology.

Blog post
Hale, T., 2016. This Giant Black Slug Is Almost As Big As Your Arm [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2006. Aviation Finance: Observations on Potential FAA Funding Options (No. GAO-06-973). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rostambeigi, N., 2010. Analyzing the correlates of patients’ adoption of preventative health services: Perceived risk, cost and availability of health care services (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schwartz, J., 2017. High-Stakes Test for Carbon Capture. New York Times D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (de Lozanne, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (de Lozanne, 2004; Goldenfeld and Pace, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Goldenfeld and Pace, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Hartschuh et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleZoology
AbbreviationZoology (Jena)
ISSN (print)0944-2006
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology

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