How to format your references using the Zoology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Zoology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hill, W.G., 2005. Genetics. A century of corn selection. Science 307, 683–684.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kovács, A.D., Pearce, D.A., 2013. Location- and sex-specific differences in weight and motor coordination in two commonly used mouse strains. Sci. Rep. 3, 2116.
A journal article with 3 authors
Geary, C., Rothemund, P.W.K., Andersen, E.S., 2014. RNA nanostructures. A single-stranded architecture for cotranscriptional folding of RNA nanostructures. Science 345, 799–804.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kawaguchi, R., Yu, J., Honda, J., Hu, J., Whitelegge, J., Ping, P., Wiita, P., Bok, D., Sun, H., 2007. A membrane receptor for retinol binding protein mediates cellular uptake of vitamin A. Science 315, 820–825.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bragg, S.M., 2010. Running an Effective Investor Relations Department. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Babashah, S. (Ed.), 2015. Cancer Stem Cells: Emerging Concepts and Future Perspectives in Translational Oncology, 1st ed. 2015. ed. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Pietri, I., Sakellariou, R., 2016. Cost-Efficient CPU Provisioning for Scientific Workflows on Clouds, in: Altmann, J., Silaghi, G.C., Rana, O.F. (Eds.), Economics of Grids, Clouds, Systems, and Services: 12th International Conference, GECON 2015, Cluj-Napoca, Romania, September 15-17, 2015, Revised Selected Papers, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 49–64.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Zoology.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J., 2017. Incredible New Image Shows Earth From Mars [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1979. Organizing the Federal Communications Commission for Greater Management and Regulatory Effectiveness (No. CED-79-107). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Garcia, A.D., 2013. Long-term shifts in adolescent Nicotine reward following early methylphenidate exposure in male and female rats (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
French, A., 2014. The Last, Disposable Action Hero. New York Times MM32.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hill, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Hill, 2005; Kovács and Pearce, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kovács and Pearce, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Kawaguchi et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleZoology
AbbreviationZoology (Jena)
ISSN (print)0944-2006
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology

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