How to format your references using the Zoology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Zoology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hamilton, C., 2013. No, we should not just “at least do the research.” Nature 496, 139.
A journal article with 2 authors
Toffelmier, D.A., Tyburczy, J.A., 2007. Electromagnetic detection of a 410-km-deep melt layer in the southwestern United States. Nature 447, 991–994.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nowak, M.A., Komarova, N.L., Niyogi, P., 2001. Evolution of universal grammar. Science 291, 114–118.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hilleren, P., McCarthy, T., Rosbash, M., Parker, R., Jensen, T.H., 2001. Quality control of mRNA 3’-end processing is linked to the nuclear exosome. Nature 413, 538–542.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Attwood, D., Baybutt, P., Devlin, C., Fluharty, W., Hughes, G., Isaacson, D., Joyner, P., Lee, E., Lorenzo, D., Morrison, L., Ormsby, B., 2006. Human Factors Methods for Improving Performance in the Process Industries. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Herrmann, C., Terhechte, J.P. (Eds.), 2010. European Yearbook of International Economic Law 2010, European Yearbook of International Economic Law. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Alaniz, J., 2016. Standing Orders: Oracle, Disability, and Retconning, in: Foss, C., Gray, J.W., Whalen, Z. (Eds.), Disability in Comic Books and Graphic Narratives. Palgrave Macmillan UK, London, pp. 59–79.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Zoology.

Blog post
Taub, B., 2016. LSD-bunked: How Research Is Finally Separating The Facts From The Myths Surrounding Acid [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1980. The National Institute of Education Should Further Increase Minority and Female Participation in Its Activities (No. HRD-81-3). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kuls, M., 2012. Single item versus multiple items: An examination of validity and the impact of mood in measuring constructs (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sengupta, S., Hubbard, B., 2017. Truce That Trump Announced at G-20 Survives Its First Day in Southwestern Syria. New York Times A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hamilton, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Hamilton, 2013; Toffelmier and Tyburczy, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Toffelmier and Tyburczy, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Hilleren et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleZoology
AbbreviationZoology (Jena)
ISSN (print)0944-2006
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology

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