How to format your references using the Zoology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Zoology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Marley, M.S., 2013. Planetary science. Probing an extrasolar planet. Science 339, 1393–1394.
A journal article with 2 authors
Venkatesan, A.K., Halden, R.U., 2014. Wastewater treatment plants as chemical observatories to forecast ecological and human health risks of manmade chemicals. Sci. Rep. 4, 3731.
A journal article with 3 authors
Smith, M.H., Ploegh, H.L., Weissman, J.S., 2011. Road to ruin: targeting proteins for degradation in the endoplasmic reticulum. Science 334, 1086–1090.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Dai, X., Savrasov, S.Y., Kotliar, G., Migliori, A., Ledbetter, H., Abrahams, E., 2003. Calculated phonon spectra of plutonium at high temperatures. Science 300, 953–955.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Taylor, B., 2005. Effective Environmental, Health, and Safety Management Using the Team Approach. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Becher, T., 2015. Introduction to Soft-Collinear Effective Theory, Lecture Notes in Physics. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Schaefer, I., Seidl, C., Cleophas, L., Watson, B.W., 2016. Tax-PLEASE—Towards Taxonomy-Based Software Product Line Engineering, in: Kapitsaki, G.M., Santana de Almeida, E. (Eds.), Software Reuse: Bridging with Social-Awareness: 15th International Conference, ICSR 2016, Limassol, Cyprus, June 5-7, 2016, Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 63–70.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Zoology.

Blog post
Taub, B., 2016. New Research Shows How The Iron Curtain Blocked The Spread Of HIV To The East [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1980. Basic Sources of International Petroleum Statistics (No. 112639). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Runyan, T.E., 2017. A Machine Learning Approach to Quantifying Likely Locations of Gas and Gas Hydrate Accumulation (Doctoral dissertation). University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gordon, M.R., Cooper, H., 2017. Islamic State Leader Is Still at Large, Defense Secretary Says. New York Times A7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Marley, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Marley, 2013; Venkatesan and Halden, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Venkatesan and Halden, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Dai et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleZoology
AbbreviationZoology (Jena)
ISSN (print)0944-2006
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology

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