How to format your references using the The Journal of Antibiotics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Antibiotics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Platt, F. M. Sphingolipid lysosomal storage disorders. Nature 510, 68–75 (2014).
A journal article with 2 authors
Serebrov, V. & Pyle, A. M. Periodic cycles of RNA unwinding and pausing by hepatitis C virus NS3 helicase. Nature 430, 476–480 (2004).
A journal article with 3 authors
Stebe, K. J., Lewandowski, E. & Ghosh, M. Materials science. Oriented assembly of metamaterials. Science 325, 159–160 (2009).
A journal article with 6 or more authors
Nauta, K., Moore, D. T., Stiles, P. L. & Miller, R. E. Probing the structure of metal cluster-adsorbate systems with high-resolution infrared spectroscopy. Science 292, 481–484 (2001).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Myatt, G. J. & Johnson, W. P. Making Sense of Data III. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2011).
An edited book
Functional Imaging and Modeling of the Heart: Third International Workshop, FIMH 2005, Barcelona, Spain, June 2-4, 2005. Proceedings. vol. 3504 (Springer, 2005).
A chapter in an edited book
Dashkovskiy, S., Mironchenko, A. & Naujok, L. Autonomous and Central Control of Production Networks. in Autonomous Cooperation and Control in Logistics: Contributions and Limitations - Theoretical and Practical Perspectives (eds. Hülsmann, M., Scholz-Reiter, B. & Windt, K.) 27–43 (Springer, 2011).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Antibiotics.

Blog post
Davis, J. Asthma Can Impact The Sex Lives Of Sufferers. IFLScience (2017).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Information Superhighway: An Overview of Technology Challenges. (1995).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bunkley, R. L. A mentoring program for adolescents in a placement facility: A grant proposal project. (California State University, Long Beach, 2010).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M. W. & Schwartz, N. D. Estimate of Economic Losses Now Up to $50 Billion. New York Times B1 (2012).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Antibiotics
AbbreviationJ. Antibiot. (Tokyo)
ISSN (print)0021-8820
ISSN (online)1881-1469
ScopeDrug Discovery

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