How to format your references using the The Journal of Antibiotics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Antibiotics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kamel, F. Epidemiology. Paths from pesticides to Parkinson’s. Science 341, 722–723 (2013).
A journal article with 2 authors
Jakse, N. & Pasturel, A. Liquid Aluminum: atomic diffusion and viscosity from ab initio molecular dynamics. Sci. Rep. 3, 3135 (2013).
A journal article with 3 authors
Fortin, N. J., Wright, S. P. & Eichenbaum, H. Recollection-like memory retrieval in rats is dependent on the hippocampus. Nature 431, 188–191 (2004).
A journal article with 6 or more authors
Shen, W. et al. Epigenetic modification of the leptin promoter in diet-induced obese mice and the effects of N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Sci. Rep. 4, 5282 (2014).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wells, R. Global Credit Management. (John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2004).
An edited book
Pediatric Bone Sarcomas: Epiphysiolysis before excision. (Springer, 2009).
A chapter in an edited book
Carey, F. A. & Sundberg, R. J. Nucleophilic Substitution. in Advanced Organic Chemistry: Part A: Structure and Mechanisms (ed. Sundberg, R. J.) 389–472 (Springer US, 2007).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Antibiotics.

Blog post
Fang, J. Why Do We Age? IFLScience (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Information Superhighway: An Overview of Technology Challenges. (1995).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Heyen, C. Two predictors of smoking behaviors in the LGBTQ population: Anxiety and internalized homophobia. (Southern Illinois University, 2015).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg, B. How Penguins Make A Home on Road Ice. New York Times D3 (2017).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Antibiotics
AbbreviationJ. Antibiot. (Tokyo)
ISSN (print)0021-8820
ISSN (online)1881-1469
ScopeDrug Discovery

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