How to format your references using the The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hardebeck JL (2015) Stress orientations in subduction zones and the strength of subduction megathrust faults. Science 349: 1213–1216.
A journal article with 2 authors
Denton M, Marshall C (2001) Protein folds: laws of form revisited. Nature 410: 417.
A journal article with 3 authors
King J-R, Bekinschtein T, Dehaene S (2011) Comment on “Preserved feedforward but impaired top-down processes in the vegetative state.” Science 334: 1203; author reply 1203.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Xiong S, Xi B, Zhang K, Chen Y, Jiang J, Hu J, Zeng HC (2013) Ag nanoprisms with Ag₂S attachment. Sci Rep 3: 2177.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Yan SY (2012) Computational Number Theory and Modern Cryptography. Fusionopolis Walk, Singapore: John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd.
An edited book
Battistella G (Ed) (2014) Global and Asian Perspectives on International Migration. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Heinemann G, Gaiser C (2015) Mobile Commerce as Base Factor No. 3 for SoLoMo. In C Gaiser (Ed), Social - Local - Mobile: The Future of Location-Based Services (pp 101–154). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Five Things the Ancient Greeks Can Teach Us About Medicine Today. IFLScience. (last accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1973) Role of Three Consultants in Award of Emergency School Assistance Program/Community Groups Grants ( No. B-164031(1)). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lin Y-S (2009) Virtuoso Piano Transcriptions of Stephen Hough and Marc-André Hamelin: Lisztian Tradition in the Twenty-First Century (Doctoral dissertation). Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik J (2017) Sex, Drugs and Archie. New York Times C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hardebeck, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Denton and Marshall, 2001; Hardebeck, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Denton and Marshall, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Xiong et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
ISSN (print)0022-3018
ISSN (online)1539-736X

Other styles