How to format your references using the The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brook E (2012) Climate change. The ice age carbon puzzle. Science 336: 682–683.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wang ZX, Schleyer PR (2001) Construction principles of “hyparenes”: families of molecules with planar pentacoordinate carbons. Science 292: 2465–2469.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lehmann S, Jackson AD, Lautrup BE (2006) Measures for measures. Nature 444: 1003–1004.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Xu ZA, Ong NP, Wang Y, Kakeshita T, Uchida S (2000) Vortex-like excitations and the onset of superconducting phase fluctuation in underdoped La(2-x)Sr(x)CuO4. Nature 406: 486–488.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Barnett JE, Johnson WB (2015) Ethics Desk Reference for Counselors. Alexandria, VA, USA: American Counseling Association.
An edited book
Kovalev M (2014) A Pipelined Multi-Core MIPS Machine: Hardware Implementation and Correctness Proof. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Rosen BA (2016) Erratum to: Potted Review of Economic Theory: The Complex Evolving System. In J-P Close (Ed), AiREAS: Sustainocracy for a Healthy City: The Invisible Made Visible Phase 1 (pp E1–E1). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease.

Blog post
Luntz S (2015) Most Psychology Papers Can’t Be Reproduced. IFLScience. (last accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1987) Buy America Requirements: Federal Enforcement Questioned in Sacramento Mass Transit Procurement ( No. RCED-87-162FS). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tran LN (2013) Low-Cost Vehicle Remote Diagnostic System (Doctoral dissertation). Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow L (2008) Megyn Kelly and Douglas Brunt. New York Times ST13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Brook, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Brook, 2012; Wang and Schleyer, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wang and Schleyer, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Xu et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
ISSN (print)0022-3018
ISSN (online)1539-736X

Other styles