How to format your references using the The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kristoufek L (2013) Fractal markets hypothesis and the global financial crisis: wavelet power evidence. Sci Rep 3: 2857.
A journal article with 2 authors
Outeiro TF, Lindquist S (2003) Yeast cells provide insight into alpha-synuclein biology and pathobiology. Science 302: 1772–1775.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kim S-H, Kim H, Kim NJ (2015) Brittle intermetallic compound makes ultrastrong low-density steel with large ductility. Nature 518: 77–79.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Carmi R, Polturak E, Koren G, Auerbach A (2000) Spontaneous macroscopic magnetization at the superconducting transition temperature of YBa2Cu3O(7-delta). Nature 404: 853–855.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bagdonavičius V, Kruopis J, Nikulin MS (2011) Non-Parametric Tests for Censored Data. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Roos V (Ed) (2016) Understanding Relational and Group Experiences through the Mmogo-Method®. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Rhee H, Park S, Sarapuloff SA, Han SW, Park JH (2015) Frequency Tuning of a Wineglass Resonator Based on Acoustic Testing. In E Wee Sit (Ed), Sensors and Instrumentation, Volume 5: Proceedings of the 33rd IMAC, A Conference and Exposition on Structural Dynamics, 2015 (pp 31–35). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Thousands Of Darwin’s Hand-Written Manuscripts Made Available Online. IFLScience. (last accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1993) Digests of Decisions of the Comptroller General of the United States, Vol. IV, No. 5 ( No. 149426). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nambiar VR (2012) A Grounded Theory Study on Business Excellence Models in the United Arab Emirates (Doctoral dissertation). Phoenix, AZ: University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney K (2009) It’s Fresh, Local and Elegant. New York Times NJ13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kristoufek, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Kristoufek, 2013; Outeiro and Lindquist, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Outeiro and Lindquist, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Carmi et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
ISSN (print)0022-3018
ISSN (online)1539-736X

Other styles