How to format your references using the Zoologischer Anzeiger citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Zoologischer Anzeiger. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Macilwain, C., 2011. Pharmaceutical industry must take its medicine. Nature 470, 141.
A journal article with 2 authors
Orphanides, G., Reinberg, D., 2000. RNA polymerase II elongation through chromatin. Nature 407, 471–475.
A journal article with 3 authors
Korswagen, H.C., Herman, M.A., Clevers, H.C., 2000. Distinct beta-catenins mediate adhesion and signalling functions in C. elegans. Nature 406, 527–532.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Makarova, T.L., Sundqvist, B., Höhne, R., Esquinazi, P., Kopelevich, Y., Scharff, P., Davydov, V.A., Kashevarova, L.S., Rakhmanina, A.V., 2001. Magnetic carbon. Nature 413, 716–718.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Nyce, D.S., 2016. Position Sensors. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Lee, P.T.-W., Cullinane, K. (Eds.), 2016. Dynamic Shipping and Port Development in the Globalized Economy: Volume 2: Emerging Trends in Ports. Palgrave Macmillan UK, London.
A chapter in an edited book
Bolotnikov, V., Kheifets, A., 2008. The Higher Order Carathéodory—Julia Theorem and Related Boundary Interpolation Problems, in: Ball, J.A., Eidelman, Y., Helton, J.W., Olshevsky, V., Rovnyak, J. (Eds.), Recent Advances in Matrix and Operator Theory, Operator Theory: Advances and Applications. Birkhäuser, Basel, pp. 63–102.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Zoologischer Anzeiger.

Blog post
Taub, B., 2016. Explosive Rage Linked To Decreased Connectivity Between Key Brain Regions [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2014. Transportation Security Information Sharing: Results of GAO’s Survey of Stakeholder Satisfaction with TSA Products and Mechanisms (GAO-14-488SP, June 2014), an E-supplement to GAO-14-506 (No. GAO-14-488SP). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Watson, K.F., 2014. Persons and how we trace them: What Johnston got wrong (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S.K., 2004. World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Apartment Toll At 58. New York Times A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Macilwain, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Macilwain, 2011; Orphanides and Reinberg, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Orphanides and Reinberg, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Makarova et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleZoologischer Anzeiger
AbbreviationZool. Anz.
ISSN (print)0044-5231
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology

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