How to format your references using the Zoologischer Anzeiger citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Zoologischer Anzeiger. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fisk, D., 2012. The Urban Challenge. Science 336, 1396–1397.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bendor, D., Wang, X., 2005. The neuronal representation of pitch in primate auditory cortex. Nature 436, 1161–1165.
A journal article with 3 authors
Matsumoto, M., Saito, S., Ohmine, I., 2002. Molecular dynamics simulation of the ice nucleation and growth process leading to water freezing. Nature 416, 409–413.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Purnell, M.A., Bell, M.A., Baines, D.C., Hart, P.J.B., Travis, M.P., 2007. Correlated evolution and dietary change in fossil stickleback. Science 317, 1887.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Birke, D., 2013. Social Networks and their Economics. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Tonon, G. (Ed.), 2016. Indicators of Quality of Life in Latin America, 1st ed. 2016. ed, Social Indicators Research Series. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Walsh, M.E., Theodorakakis, M.D., Backe, S., 2016. Redesigning a Core Function of Schools: A Systemic, Evidence-Based Approach to Student Support, in: Lawson, H.A., van Veen, D. (Eds.), Developing Community Schools, Community Learning Centers, Extended-Service Schools and Multi-Service Schools: International Exemplars for Practice, Policy and Research. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 127–147.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Zoologischer Anzeiger.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. The Comet That Outgrew The Sun [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2006. Lessons Learned for Protecting and Educating Children after the Gulf Coast Hurricanes (No. GAO-06-680R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McClurg, A.D., 2013. A phenomenological study of Baby Boomer retirement— Expectations, results, and implications (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M., 2012. I.O.C. Rejects ’72 Remembrance. New York Times B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Fisk, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Bendor and Wang, 2005; Fisk, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bendor and Wang, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Purnell et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleZoologischer Anzeiger
AbbreviationZool. Anz.
ISSN (print)0044-5231
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology

Other styles