How to format your references using the Zoologischer Anzeiger - A Journal of Comparative Zoology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Zoologischer Anzeiger - A Journal of Comparative Zoology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schmidt, C., 2015. Cancer: Reshaping the cancer clinic. Nature 527, S10-1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nadeau, R.M., Dolenc, D., 2005. Nonvolcanic tremors deep beneath the San Andreas Fault. Science 307, 389.
A journal article with 3 authors
Murray, B., Huntress, W.T., Jr, Friedman, L.D., 2001. Mars outposts: a planetary society approach to exploration. Nature 412, 254–255.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Sjodt, M., Brock, K., Dobihal, G., Rohs, P.D.A., Green, A.G., Hopf, T.A., Meeske, A.J., Srisuknimit, V., Kahne, D., Walker, S., Marks, D.S., Bernhardt, T.G., Rudner, D.Z., Kruse, A.C., 2018. Structure of the peptidoglycan polymerase RodA resolved by evolutionary coupling analysis. Nature 556, 118–121.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ballast, D.K., 2010. Interior Detailing. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Matoušek, V., Mautner, P. (Eds.), 2009. Text, Speech and Dialogue: 12th International Conference, TSD 2009, Pilsen, Czech Republic, September 13-17, 2009. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Chaouachi, M., Jraidi, I., Frasson, C., 2015. MENTOR: A Physiologically Controlled Tutoring System, in: Ricci, F., Bontcheva, K., Conlan, O., Lawless, S. (Eds.), User Modeling, Adaptation and Personalization: 23rd International Conference, UMAP 2015, Dublin, Ireland, June 29 -- July 3, 2015. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 56–67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Zoologischer Anzeiger - A Journal of Comparative Zoology.

Blog post
Andrews, R., 2016. Earthquakes Beneath Mount St. Helens Indicate Magma Chamber Is Recharging [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2011. Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration: Additional Actions Needed to Strengthen Grants Management (No. GAO-12-158). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Duncan, K.F., 2016. Middle school teachers’ self-perceptions of response to intervention (Doctoral dissertation). Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron, J., 2016. Owner of Brooklyn Brownstone Sees Herself Caught in Airbnb Crossfire. New York Times A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schmidt, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Nadeau and Dolenc, 2005; Schmidt, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Nadeau and Dolenc, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Sjodt et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleZoologischer Anzeiger - A Journal of Comparative Zoology
AbbreviationZool. Anz.
ISSN (print)0044-5231
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology

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