How to format your references using the Zoologischer Anzeiger - A Journal of Comparative Zoology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Zoologischer Anzeiger - A Journal of Comparative Zoology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dehant, V., 2003. Planetary science. A liquid core for Mars? Science 300, 260–261.
A journal article with 2 authors
McLean, P.F., Cooley, L., 2013. Protein equilibration through somatic ring canals in Drosophila. Science 340, 1445–1447.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rappuoli, R., Miller, H.I., Falkow, S., 2002. Medicine. The intangible value of vaccination. Science 297, 937–939.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Aurbach, D., Lu, Z., Schechter, A., Gofer, Y., Gizbar, H., Turgeman, R., Cohen, Y., Moshkovich, M., Levi, E., 2000. Prototype systems for rechargeable magnesium batteries. Nature 407, 724–727.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Phillips, J.J., Trotter, W.D., Phillips, P.P., 2015. Maximizing the Value of Consulting. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Martens, B., Brown, A. (Eds.), 2005. Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2005: Proceedings of the 11th International CAAD Futures Conference held at the Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, on June 20–22, 2005. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Lee, R.S., Diamond, D.A., 2009. Perinatal Urology, in: Avner, E., Harmon, W., Niaudet, P., Yoshikawa, N. (Eds.), Pediatric Nephrology: Sixth Completely Revised, Updated and Enlarged Edition. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 95–106.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Zoologischer Anzeiger - A Journal of Comparative Zoology.

Blog post
Andrew, D., 2016. Why New Law Banning All Psychoactive Substances Will Be Just Another ‘War On Drugs’ Disaster [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1998. Air Traffic Control: Weak Computer Security Practices Jeopardize Flight Safety (No. AIMD-98-155). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Richardson, S., 2014. Individual sense of efficacy, collective teacher efficacy and student achievement in high achieving and low achieving urban public schools (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik, J., 2017. It’s Dark Out There Among the Stars. New York Times C15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dehant, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Dehant, 2003; McLean and Cooley, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (McLean and Cooley, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Aurbach et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleZoologischer Anzeiger - A Journal of Comparative Zoology
AbbreviationZool. Anz.
ISSN (print)0044-5231
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology

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