How to format your references using the Zoologischer Anzeiger - A Journal of Comparative Zoology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Zoologischer Anzeiger - A Journal of Comparative Zoology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Xie, T., 2008. Physiology. Burn fat, live longer. Science 322, 865–866.
A journal article with 2 authors
Durst, A.C., Girvin, S.M., 2004. Physics. Cooking a two-dimensional electron gas with microwaves. Science 304, 1752–1753.
A journal article with 3 authors
Vander Heiden, M.G., Cantley, L.C., Thompson, C.B., 2009. Understanding the Warburg effect: the metabolic requirements of cell proliferation. Science 324, 1029–1033.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Soma, M., Fujihara, Y., Okabe, M., Ishino, F., Kobayashi, S., 2014. Ftx is dispensable for imprinted X-chromosome inactivation in preimplantation mouse embryos. Sci. Rep. 4, 5181.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety, 1996. Guidelines for Use of Vapor Cloud Dispersion Models. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Leuven, R.S.E.W., Ragas, A.M.J., Smits, A.J.M., Velde, G. van der (Eds.), 2006. Living Rivers: Trends and Challenges in Science and Management, Developments in Hydrobiology. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Acary, V., Brogliato, B., 2008. Complementarity Systems, in: Brogliato, B. (Ed.), Numerical Methods for Nonsmooth Dynamical Systems: Applications in Mechanics and Electronics, Lecture Notes in Applied and Computational Mechanics. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 165–176.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Zoologischer Anzeiger - A Journal of Comparative Zoology.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Dark Grape Compound May Help The Body Burn Fat [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1979. Federal Research Grants: Maintaining Public Accountability Without Inhibiting Creative Research (No. 094378). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Blumenthal, P.M., 2014. Local Land Use Regulatory Regimes and Residential Development Outcomes: An Analysis of Subdivision Review in Four Counties in the DC Region (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Moschen, I., 2012. On Train Line’s Far Reaches, a Conductor Who Offers Full Service. New York Times A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Xie, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Durst and Girvin, 2004; Xie, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Durst and Girvin, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Soma et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleZoologischer Anzeiger - A Journal of Comparative Zoology
AbbreviationZool. Anz.
ISSN (print)0044-5231
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology

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