How to format your references using the Journal of the ACM citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of the ACM (JACM). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Monya Baker. 2007. Postdoc redefined. Nature 446, 7139 (April 2007), 1114.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ruslan Medzhitov and Dan Littman. 2008. HIV immunology needs a new direction. Nature 455, 7213 (October 2008), 591.
A journal article with 3 authors
Norihiro Yumoto, Natalie Kim, and Steven J. Burden. 2012. Lrp4 is a retrograde signal for presynaptic differentiation at neuromuscular synapses. Nature 489, 7416 (September 2012), 438–442.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
T. Valla, A. V. Fedorov, Jinho Lee, J. C. Davis, and G. D. Gu. 2006. The ground state of the pseudogap in cuprate superconductors. Science 314, 5807 (December 2006), 1914–1916.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Anatoly B. Schmidt. 2011. Financial Markets and Trading. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Mohamad Mohty and Jean-Luc Harousseau (Eds.). 2015. Handbook of Multiple Myeloma. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Daniel Beltiţă and José E. Galé. 2016. Reproducing Kernels and Positivity of Vector Bundles in Infinite Dimensions. In Ordered Structures and Applications: Positivity VII (Zaanen Centennial Conference), 22-26 July 2013, Leiden, the Netherlands, Marcel de Jeu, Ben de Pagter, Onno van Gaans and Mark Veraar (eds.). Springer International Publishing, Cham, 51–75.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of the ACM.

Blog post
Ben Taub. 2016. Ancient Lost City Discovered Underground. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018 from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1982. Costs and Benefits of a Common Strategic Rotary Launcher Should Be Reassessed Before Further Funds Are Available. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mary C. Crider. 2012. The social and environmental effects of shrimp mariculture: Case studies of two coastal villages in Ecuador. Doctoral dissertation. Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
John Schwartz. 2016. Forecast Hints That Hurricane Matthew Could Return. New York Times, A11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [2,4].
This sentence cites four references [2,4,7,8].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of the ACM
AbbreviationJ. ACM
ISSN (print)0004-5411
ISSN (online)1557-735X
ScopeArtificial Intelligence
Hardware and Architecture
Information Systems
Control and Systems Engineering

Other styles