How to format your references using the Liver International citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Liver International. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Südhof TC. Neuroligins and neurexins link synaptic function to cognitive disease. Nature. 2008;455:903–911.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Maund JR, Smartt SJ. The disappearance of the progenitors of supernovae 1993J and 2003gd. Science. 2009;324:486–488.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Barwick B, Flannigan DJ, Zewail AH. Photon-induced near-field electron microscopy. Nature. 2009;462:902–906.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Hartschuh A, Pedrosa HN, Novotny L, Krauss TD. Simultaneous fluorescence and Raman scattering from single carbon nanotubes. Science. 2003;301:1354–1356.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Matthews GG. Cellular Physiology of Nerve and Muscle. Malden, MA USA: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.; 2002.
An edited book
1. Yilbas BS. Laser Pulse Heating of Surfaces and Thermal Stress Analysis. Heidelberg: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Zhang A, Zhou L, Wang L. Cooperation Stimulation. In: Zhou L, Wang L, eds. Security-Aware Device-to-Device Communications Underlaying Cellular Networks. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 51–69.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Liver International.

Blog post
1. Andrews R. Archeologists Find Ancient Human Engravings From The End Of The Ice Age. IFLScience. 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Services to Indian Head Start Grantees Under a Special Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1976.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Kostenbader TC. Analyzing students’ attitudes towards science during inquiry-based lessons. 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Oestreich JR. Sibelius and His Slowly Imparted Secrets Revealed. New York Times. 2017;C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleLiver International
AbbreviationLiver Int.
ISSN (print)1478-3223
ISSN (online)1478-3231

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