How to format your references using the Liver International citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Liver International. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Kamionkowski M. Astrophysics: Gravity ripples chased. Nature. 2009;460:964–965.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Vokrouhlicky D, Farinella P. Efficient delivery of meteorites to the Earth from a wide range of asteroid parent bodies. Nature. 2000;407:606–608.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Wittlinger M, Wehner R, Wolf H. The ant odometer: stepping on stilts and stumps. Science. 2006;312:1965–1967.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. van Breugel M, Hirono M, Andreeva A, et al. Structures of SAS-6 suggest its organization in centrioles. Science. 2011;331:1196–1199.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Bouvier J-M, Campanella OH. Extrusion Processing Technology. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
1. Kellomäki S, Kilpeläinen A, Alam A, eds. Forest BioEnergy Production: Management, Carbon sequestration and Adaptation. New York, NY: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Viggiani G. Mechanisms of localized deformation in geomaterials: an experimental insight using full-field measurement techniques. In: Kolymbas D, Viggiani G, eds. Mechanics of Natural Solids. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009. p. 105–125.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Liver International.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Underground Map Reveals Hidden Secrets Of Stonehenge And Nearby Monstrous “Super Henge.” IFLScience. 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. FAA Budget: Key Issues in Facilities and Equipment and Operations Accounts Need Resolution. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Joseph OW. A study of the effectiveness of mentor roles in a rural school district. 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Crow K. The Nonpaying Audience Withholds Its Applause. New York Times. 2002;144.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleLiver International
AbbreviationLiver Int.
ISSN (print)1478-3223
ISSN (online)1478-3231

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