How to format your references using the Zoological Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Zoological Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Heine V V (2000) Crystal structure. As weird as they come. Nature 403:836–837
A journal article with 2 authors
Anikeeva P, Koppes RA (2015) BIOENGINEERING. Restoring the sense of touch. Science 350:274–275
A journal article with 3 authors
Tynan CT, DeMaster DP, Peterson WT (2001) Endangered right whales on the southeastern Bering Sea shelf. Science 294:1894
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Chipuk JE, Bouchier-Hayes L, Kuwana T, et al (2005) PUMA couples the nuclear and cytoplasmic proapoptotic function of p53. Science 309:1732–1735

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sedlacek HH, Sapienza AM, Eid V (2008) Ways to Successful Strategies in Drug Research and Development. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH, Weinheim, Germany
An edited book
Longo LD (2016) Wombs with a View: Illustrations of the Gravid Uterus from the Renaissance through the Nineteenth Century. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Yu W, Li X (2009) Stable Adaptive Compensation with Fuzzy Cerebellar Model Articulation Controller for Overhead Cranes. In: Yu W (ed) Recent Advances in Intelligent Control Systems. Springer, London, pp 67–85

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Zoological Studies.

Blog post
Luntz S (2016) How Bacteria Make Ice. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2006) Offshoring in Six Human Services Programs: Offshoring Occurs in Most States, Primarily in Customer Service and Software Development. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Terrell S (2010) How Global Leaders Develop: A Phenomenological Study of Global Leadership Development. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
St. John Kelly E (1995) Ghosts Of Montero, By the Sea. New York Times 134

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Heine 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Heine 2000; Anikeeva and Koppes 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Anikeeva and Koppes 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Chipuk et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleZoological Studies
AbbreviationZool. Stud.
ISSN (online)1810-522X

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