How to format your references using the Zoological Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Zoological Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bilham R (2006) Geophysics. Dangerous tectonics, fragile buildings, and tough decisions. Science 311:1873–1875
A journal article with 2 authors
Hattori M, Gouaux E (2012) Molecular mechanism of ATP binding and ion channel activation in P2X receptors. Nature 485:207–212
A journal article with 3 authors
Carbotte SM, Small C, Donnelly K (2004) The influence of ridge migration on the magmatic segmentation of mid-ocean ridges. Nature 429:743–746
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Zhao W, Ye L, Zhang S, et al (2014) Ultrathin polyaniline-based buffer layer for highly efficient polymer solar cells with wide applicability. Sci Rep 4:6570

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Clayton LA (2010) Bartolomé de las Casas and the Conquest of the Americas. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK
An edited book
Cruz-Uribe DV (2011) Weights, Extrapolation and the Theory of Rubio de Francia. Springer, Basel
A chapter in an edited book
Kyei PP (2011) Energy Conservation in Aerobic Wastewater Treatment Units. In: Schmidt M, Onyango V, Palekhov D (eds) Implementing Environmental and Resource Management. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 33–40

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Zoological Studies.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Researchers Make Significant Progress In The Development Of An Alzheimer’s Blood Test. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1988) The National Aero-Space Plane. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Knight AK (2017) Beyond Leveraged Purchasing: Using Strengthened Buyer/Supplier Relationships to Accomplish Sustainable Strategic Sourcing and Smarter Single Source Acquisitions. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg B (2017) The Revolution Will Be Filmed. New York Times C4

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bilham 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Bilham 2006; Hattori and Gouaux 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hattori and Gouaux 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhao et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleZoological Studies
AbbreviationZool. Stud.
ISSN (online)1810-522X

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