How to format your references using the Zoological Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Zoological Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Müller MM (2001) Object processing in the infant brain. Science 292:163
A journal article with 2 authors
Foster GL, Vance D (2006) Negligible glacial-interglacial variation in continental chemical weathering rates. Nature 444:918–921
A journal article with 3 authors
Weil D, Graham M, Fung A (2013) Science and regulation. Targeting transparency. Science 340:1410–1411
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Riedelsheimer C, Brotman Y, Méret M, et al (2013) The maize leaf lipidome shows multilevel genetic control and high predictive value for agronomic traits. Sci Rep 3:2479

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pevsner J (2005) Bioinformatics and Functional Genomics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Kakaç S, Vasiliev LL, Bayazitoğlu Y, Yener Y (eds) (2005) Microscale Heat Transfer Fundamentals and Applications: Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute on Microscale Heat Transfer — Fundamentals and Applications in Biological and Microelectromechanical Systems Cesme-Izmir, Turkey 18–30 July 2004. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Kikuchi M, Azumi M (2015) Collisional Transport in Tokamak. In: Azumi M (ed) Frontiers in Fusion Research II: Introduction to Modern Tokamak Physics. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 63–114

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Zoological Studies.

Blog post
Taub B (2016) These Are The Organizations That Can Now View Your Browser History Under New Security Laws. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1978) Proposed Procedure for Access by GAO to Records of Students in the Murphy School District. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ellerbrock G (2017) Intergenerational Ontology & Leadership: Uniting the Multigenerational Workforce. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L (2007) Oral Dissents Give Ginsburg A New Voice. New York Times A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Müller 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Müller 2001; Foster and Vance 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Foster and Vance 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Riedelsheimer et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleZoological Studies
AbbreviationZool. Stud.
ISSN (online)1810-522X

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