How to format your references using the Zoological Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Zoological Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Webb B (2002) Robots in invertebrate neuroscience. Nature 417:359–363
A journal article with 2 authors
Vollmer D, Butt H-J (2015) Materials science: Droplets leap into action. Nature 527:41–42
A journal article with 3 authors
Savukov IM, Lee S-K, Romalis MV (2006) Optical detection of liquid-state NMR. Nature 442:1021–1024
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Wu Q, He W, Liu H-L, et al (2013) Tuning magnetic anisotropies of Fe films on Si(111) substrate via direction variation of heating current. Sci Rep 3:1547

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gadd K (2011) TRIZ for Engineers: Enabling Inventive Problem Solving. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Edge CS (2010) Beginning Mac OS X Snow Leopard Server: From Solo Install to Enterprise Integration. Apress, Berkeley, CA
A chapter in an edited book
Dinman JD (2010) Programmed –1 Ribosomal Frameshifting in SARS Coronavirus. In: Lal SK (ed) Molecular Biology of the SARS-Coronavirus. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 63–72

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Zoological Studies.

Blog post
Luntz S (2014) The Very Hungry (Carnivorous) Caterpillars. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2009) Effect of Personnel Reform on the Federal Aviation Administration’s Budget. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Marulkar S (2016) Indoor object localization system. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Conte L (2011) Scouting Report. New York Times E4

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Webb 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Webb 2002; Vollmer and Butt 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Vollmer and Butt 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Wu et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleZoological Studies
AbbreviationZool. Stud.
ISSN (online)1810-522X

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