How to format your references using the Zoological Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Zoological Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Carroll SB (2001) The big picture. Nature 409:669
A journal article with 2 authors
Ley TJ, Hamilton BH (2008) Sociology. The gender gap in NIH grant applications. Science 322:1472–1474
A journal article with 3 authors
Alford RA, Bradfield KS, Richards SJ (2007) Ecology: global warming and amphibian losses. Nature 447:E3-4; discussion E5-6
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Xiong J-P, Stehle T, Zhang R, et al (2002) Crystal structure of the extracellular segment of integrin alpha Vbeta3 in complex with an Arg-Gly-Asp ligand. Science 296:151–155

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Toptygin IN (2015) Electromagnetic Phenomena in Matter. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany
An edited book
Marcus A (ed) (2014) Design, User Experience, and Usability. User Experience Design Practice: Third International Conference, DUXU 2014, Held as Part of HCI International 2014, Heraklion, Crete, Greece, June 22-27, 2014, Proceedings, Part IV. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Schinianakis D, Stouraitis T (2016) Residue Number Systems in Cryptography: Design, Challenges, Robustness. In: Chang C-H, Potkonjak M (eds) Secure System Design and Trustable Computing. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 115–161

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Zoological Studies.

Blog post
Evans K (2017) Ancient Turtles Evolved Necks To Snap Up Prey, Not As Timid Defense. In: IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/ancient-turtles-evolved-necks-to-snap-up-prey-not-as-timid-defense/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2013) National Airspace System: Improved Budgeting Could Help FAA Better Determine Future Operations and Maintenance Priorities. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wahl RJ (2012) Agustín Barrios and musical identity: Tangos in early twentieth-century guitar repertory. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feuer A (2015) A Campaign to Preserve the Ordinary. New York Times MB1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Carroll 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Carroll 2001; Ley and Hamilton 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ley and Hamilton 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Xiong et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleZoological Studies
AbbreviationZool. Stud.
ISSN (online)1810-522X
Scope

Other styles