How to format your references using the Zoological Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Zoological Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mézard M (2007) Computer science. Where are the exemplars? Science 315:949–951
A journal article with 2 authors
Trachenko K, Brazhkin VV (2013) Duality of liquids. Sci Rep 3:2188
A journal article with 3 authors
Pearson PD, Moje E, Greenleaf C (2010) Literacy and science: each in the service of the other. Science 328:459–463
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Xu W, Zhang H, Li G, Wu Z (2014) Nickel-cobalt bimetallic anode catalysts for direct urea fuel cell. Sci Rep 4:5863

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bragg SM (2011) The Controller’s Function. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Wu Y (ed) (2011) Computing and Intelligent Systems: International Conference, ICCIC 2011, Wuhan, China, September 17-18, 2011, Proceedings, Part III. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Mohanraj V, Vaidehi V, Kumar R, Nakkeeran R (2016) Face Recognition in Video Using Deformable Parts Model with Scale Invariant Feature Transform (DPSIFT). In: Chaki R, Cortesi A, Saeed K, Chaki N (eds) Advanced Computing and Systems for Security: Volume 2. Springer India, New Delhi, pp 69–80

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Zoological Studies.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) What Does Pi Sound Like? In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1987) Maritime Administration: Efforts To Improve Data on the Federal Ship Financing Program. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tubbs MA (2014) The use of hand-constructed graphs in Microcomputer-Based Laboratories for kinematics instruction. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schwartz J (2016) Forecast Hints That Hurricane Matthew Could Return. New York Times A11

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Mézard 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Mézard 2007; Trachenko and Brazhkin 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Trachenko and Brazhkin 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Xu et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleZoological Studies
AbbreviationZool. Stud.
ISSN (online)1810-522X

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