How to format your references using the Earth, Moon, and Planets citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Earth, Moon, and Planets. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
P. Smaglik, Nature 429, 323 (2004).
A journal article with 2 authors
G. M. Whitesides and G. W. Crabtree, Science 315, 796 (2007).
A journal article with 3 authors
M. Tripodi, A. E. Stepien, and S. Arber, Nature 479, 61 (2011).
A journal article with 4 or more authors
S. Dai, R. Friemann, D. A. Glauser, F. Bourquin, W. Manieri, P. Schürmann, and H. Eklund, Nature 448, 92 (2007).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J. Sutt, I. Lill, and O. Müürsepp, The Engineer’s Manual of Construction Site Planning (John Wiley & Sons, Oxford, 2013).
An edited book
Y. Manolopoulos, J. Pokorný, and T. K. Sellis, editors , Advances in Databases and Information Systems: 10th East European Conference, ADBIS 2006, Thessaloniki, Greece, September 3-7, 2006. Proceedings (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2006).
A chapter in an edited book
D. Johnson and O. Ayeni, in Complications in Knee and Shoulder Surgery: Management and Treatment Options for the Sports Medicine Orthopedist, edited by R. J. Meislin and J. Halbrecht (Springer, London, 2009), pp. 53–74.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Earth, Moon, and Planets.

Blog post
J. Davis, IFLScience (2016).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Restructured Neighborhood Youth Corps Out-of-School Program in Urban Areas (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1974).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
A. Cross, Tinkering in K-12: An Exploratory Mixed Methods Study of Makerspaces in Schools as an Application of Constructivist Learning, Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Vlasic, New York Times BU1 (2015).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Smaglik 2004; Whitesides and Crabtree 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Whitesides and Crabtree 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Dai et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarth, Moon, and Planets
AbbreviationEarth Moon Planets
ISSN (print)0167-9295
ISSN (online)1573-0794
ScopeEarth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)
Space and Planetary Science
Astronomy and Astrophysics

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