How to format your references using the The Journal of Modern History citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Modern History (JMH). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hand, Eric. “Cash Crisis Could Ground NASA Rocket.” Nature 461, no. 7261 (September 10, 2009): 153.
A journal article with 2 authors
Edenhofer, Ottmar, and Jan Minx. “Climate Policy. Mapmakers and Navigators, Facts and Values.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 345, no. 6192 (July 4, 2014): 37–38.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sun, Qian, Kenneth F. Haynes, and Xuguo Zhou. “Differential Undertaking Response of a Lower Termite to Congeneric and Conspecific Corpses.” Scientific Reports 3 (2013): 1650.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Lin, Ling, Melanie S. Spoor, Andrea J. Gerth, Steven L. Brody, and Stanford L. Peng. “Modulation of Th1 Activation and Inflammation by the NF-KappaB Repressor Foxj1.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 303, no. 5660 (February 13, 2004): 1017–20.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gywat, Oliver, Hubert J. Krenner, and Jesse Berezovsky. Spins in Optically Active Quantum Dots. Weinheim, Germany, 2009.
An edited book
Myers, Adrian, and Gabriel Moshenska, eds. Archaeologies of Internment. One World Archaeology. New York, NY, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Ghosh, Amitabha, and Burkhard Corves. “Design of Micromechanisms.” In Introduction to Micromechanisms and Microactuators, edited by Burkhard Corves, 57–79. Mechanisms and Machine Science. New Delhi, 2015.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Modern History.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. “Every World In A Grain Of Sand: John Nash’s Astonishing Geometry.” IFLScience. May 27, 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. “Disadvantaged Business Enterprise Program: Assessing Use of Proxy Data Would Enhance Ability to Know If States Are Meeting Their Goals.” Washington, DC, October 13, 2011.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Washington-Cobb, Shirley L. “Exploring the Experiences of Former Alternative Education Participants: Case Studies.” Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, Mary. “A Sprint and Leap Into the Unknown.” New York Times, July 22, 2012.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Modern History
AbbreviationJ. Mod. Hist.
ISSN (print)0022-2801
ISSN (online)1537-5358

Other styles