How to format your references using the The Journal of Modern History citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Modern History (JMH). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Powell, Kendall. “Stars in the Making.” Nature 429, no. 6993 (June 17, 2004): 786–87.
A journal article with 2 authors
Grant, Peter R., and B. Rosemary Grant. “Evolution of Character Displacement in Darwin’s Finches.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 313, no. 5784 (July 14, 2006): 224–26.
A journal article with 3 authors
Michael Beman, J., Kevin R. Arrigo, and Pamela A. Matson. “Agricultural Runoff Fuels Large Phytoplankton Blooms in Vulnerable Areas of the Ocean.” Nature 434, no. 7030 (March 10, 2005): 211–14.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Eshraghi, Arezoo, Noor Azuan Abu Osman, Hossein Gholizadeh, Jalil Ahmadian, Bizhan Rahmati, and Wan Abu Bakar Wan Abas. “Development and Evaluation of New Coupling System for Lower Limb Prostheses with Acoustic Alarm System.” Scientific Reports 3 (2013): 2270.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Paladino, Bob. Corporate Performance Management Best Practices. Hoboken, NJ, 2013.
An edited book
Padró, Carles, ed. Information Theoretic Security: 7th International Conference, ICITS 2013, Singapore, November 28-30, 2013, Proceedings. Vol. 8317. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Cham, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Yeo, Khung Keong, and John R. Laird. “Subclavian and Upper Extremity Interventions.” In Peripheral and Cerebrovascular Intervention, edited by Deepak L. Bhatt, 99–114. Totowa, NJ, 2012.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Modern History.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. “Desert Rain Frog: Dangerous Beast or Adorable Squeaky Toy?” IFLScience. April 8, 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. “Evaluation of DOD Comments Re: DOD Instruction 5000.5X, Standard Instruction Set Architectures for Embedded Computers.” Washington, DC, May 24, 1982.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Smith, Kelly A. “Impact of Animal Assisted Therapy Reading Instruction on Reading Performance of Homeschooled Students.” Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, Linda. “Justices Chilly To Bid to Alter Death Penalty.” New York Times, January 8, 2008.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Modern History
AbbreviationJ. Mod. Hist.
ISSN (print)0022-2801
ISSN (online)1537-5358

Other styles