How to format your references using the The Journal of Modern History citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Modern History (JMH). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Di Lorenzo, Emanuele. “Climate Science: The Future of Coastal Ocean Upwelling.” Nature 518, no. 7539 (February 19, 2015): 310–11.
A journal article with 2 authors
Li, Danielle, and Leila Agha. “Research Funding. Big Names or Big Ideas: Do Peer-Review Panels Select the Best Science Proposals?” Science (New York, N.Y.) 348, no. 6233 (April 24, 2015): 434–38.
A journal article with 3 authors
Liu, Chiching, Alan T. Linde, and I. Selwyn Sacks. “Slow Earthquakes Triggered by Typhoons.” Nature 459, no. 7248 (June 11, 2009): 833–36.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Paul, Asosii, Ashwani Jha, Shruti Bhardwaj, Sewa Singh, Ravi Shankar, and Sanjay Kumar. “RNA-Seq-Mediated Transcriptome Analysis of Actively Growing and Winter Dormant Shoots Identifies Non-Deciduous Habit of Evergreen Tree Tea during Winters.” Scientific Reports 4 (August 4, 2014): 5932.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bagrintseva, Ksenia I. Carbonate Reservoir Rocks. Hoboken, NJ, 2015.
An edited book
Boehm, Thomas, and Yousuke Takahama, eds. Thymic Development and Selection of T Lymphocytes. Vol. 373. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology. Berlin, Heidelberg, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Hoque, Khaza Anuarul, Otmane Ait Mohamed, Yvon Savaria, and Claude Thibeault. “Early Analysis of Soft Error Effects for Aerospace Applications Using Probabilistic Model Checking.” In Formal Techniques for Safety-Critical Systems: Second International Workshop, FTSCS 2013, Queenstown, New Zealand, October 29--30, 2013. Revised Selected Papers, edited by Cyrille Artho and Peter Csaba Ölveczky, 54–70. Communications in Computer and Information Science. Cham, 2014.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Modern History.

Blog post
Luntz, Stephen. “Lithium-Oxygen Battery May Spell The End Of The Age Of Oil.” IFLScience. July 25, 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. “Aviation Security: Transportation Security Administration Did Not Fully Disclose Uses of Personal Information During Secure Flight Program Testing in Initial Privacy Notes, but Has Recently Taken Steps to More Fully Inform the Public.” Washington, DC, July 22, 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gupta, Purva. “Enhanced Acquisition of Data in the Presence of Transfaulty Nodes in a Wireless Sensor Network.” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, Mary Williams. “Settlement Money Patched Nassau County Budget Gaps.” New York Times, May 4, 2012.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Modern History
AbbreviationJ. Mod. Hist.
ISSN (print)0022-2801
ISSN (online)1537-5358

Other styles