How to format your references using the ZDM citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for ZDM. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Berry, M. (2000). Making waves in physics. Three wave singularities from the miraculous 1830s. Nature, 403(6765), 21.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hwang, I., & Sheen, J. (2001). Two-component circuitry in Arabidopsis cytokinin signal transduction. Nature, 413(6854), 383–389.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jones, P. D., Osborn, T. J., & Briffa, K. R. (2001). The evolution of climate over the last millennium. Science (New York, N.Y.), 292(5517), 662–667.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Day, N. P., Moore, C. E., Enright, M. C., Berendt, A. R., Smith, J. M., Murphy, M. F., et al. (2001). A link between virulence and ecological abundance in natural populations of Staphylococcus aureus. Science (New York, N.Y.), 292(5514), 114–116.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Horton, W. (2011). E-Learning by Design. San Francisco, CA, USA: Pfeiffer.
An edited book
Raddawi, R. (Ed.). (2015). Intercultural Communication with Arabs: Studies in Educational, Professional and Societal Contexts. Singapore: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Hicks, G. R. (2005). Nuclear Import of Plant Proteins. In V. Citovsky (Ed.), Nuclear Import and Export in Plants and Animals (pp. 61–82). Boston, MA: Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for ZDM.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, May 27). According To Science, You’ve Probably Been Pooping Wrong Your Whole Life. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1982). Space-Based Lasers (No. 117803). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nichols, J. (2012). Genetic and genomic mechanisms of neonatal hyperoxic lung injury in the inbred mouse (Doctoral dissertation). University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2010, June 19). U.S. Shares the Blame for Feeling Cheated. New York Times, p. D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Berry 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Berry 2000; Hwang and Sheen 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hwang and Sheen 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Day et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleZDM
ISSN (print)1863-9690
ISSN (online)1863-9704
ScopeGeneral Mathematics

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