How to format your references using the ZDM citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for ZDM. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Crocker, J. (2011). The road to fraud starts with a single step. Nature, 479(7372), 151.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kara, P., & Boyd, J. D. (2009). A micro-architecture for binocular disparity and ocular dominance in visual cortex. Nature, 458(7238), 627–631.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yang, J., Goldstein, J. I., & Scott, E. R. D. (2007). Iron meteorite evidence for early formation and catastrophic disruption of protoplanets. Nature, 446(7138), 888–891.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Argo, A. M., Odzak, J. F., Lai, F. S., & Gates, B. C. (2002). Observation of ligand effects during alkene hydrogenation catalysed by supported metal clusters. Nature, 415(6872), 623–626.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Benslama, M., Boucenna, M. L., & Batatia, H. (2015). Ad Hoc Networks Telecommunications and Game Theory. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Braha, D., Minai, A. A., & Bar-Yam, Y. (Eds.). (2006). Complex Engineered Systems: Science Meets Technology. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Mishra, S., Singh, A., Keswani, C., Saxena, A., Sarma, B. K., & Singh, H. B. (2015). Harnessing Plant-Microbe Interactions for Enhanced Protection Against Phytopathogens. In N. K. Arora (Ed.), Plant Microbes Symbiosis: Applied Facets (pp. 111–125). New Delhi: Springer India.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for ZDM.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, January 31). Polar bear cub at Toronto Zoo has first experience with snow. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1978). Better Criteria Needed for Awarding Grants for School Desegregation (No. HRD-78-36). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Calderwood, A. (2014). Improving the singer’s understanding of bebop language: Transcription application (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Blecher, G. (2014, August 10). In Pursuit of the Perfect Pie. New York Times, p. LI10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Crocker 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Crocker 2011; Kara and Boyd 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kara and Boyd 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Argo et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleZDM
ISSN (print)1863-9690
ISSN (online)1863-9704
ScopeGeneral Mathematics

Other styles