How to format your references using the ZDM citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for ZDM. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wentrup, C. (2002). Radical chemistry. From reactive intermediates to stable compounds. Science (New York, N.Y.), 295(5561), 1846–1847.
A journal article with 2 authors
Blander, J. M., & Medzhitov, R. (2004). Regulation of phagosome maturation by signals from toll-like receptors. Science (New York, N.Y.), 304(5673), 1014–1018.
A journal article with 3 authors
Naumov, I. I., Bellaiche, L., & Fu, H. (2004). Unusual phase transitions in ferroelectric nanodisks and nanorods. Nature, 432(7018), 737–740.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Eldakar, O. T., Dlugos, M. J., Pepper, J. W., & Wilson, D. S. (2009). Population structure mediates sexual conflict in water striders. Science (New York, N.Y.), 326(5954), 816.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Eisner, H. (2005). Managing Complex Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
de Zwaan, J., Lak, M., Makinwa, A., & Willems, P. (Eds.). (2016). Governance and Security Issues of the European Union: Challenges Ahead. The Hague: T.M.C. Asser Press.
A chapter in an edited book
Riegl, B., Poiriez, A., Janson, X., & Bergman, K. L. (2010). The Gulf: Facies Belts, Physical, Chemical, and Biological Parameters of Sedimentation on a Carbonate Ramp. In H. Westphal, B. Riegl, & G. P. Eberli (Eds.), Carbonate Depositional Systems: Assessing Dimensions and Controlling Parameters: The Bahamas, Belize and the Persian/Arabian Gulf (pp. 145–213). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for ZDM.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2016, September 5). Scientists Have Discovered A Sixth Taste That Explains Why You Love Pizza So Damn Much. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1976). Opportunities to Improve Planning for Solar Energy Research and Development (No. EMD-77-8). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lutchman, C. (2008). Leadership impact on turnover among power engineers in the Oil Sands of Alberta (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Peters, J. F., Nikas, J., & Lyons, E. (2017, September 9). Youth in San Diego: Skateboards, Beach Hangs and Chicano Culture. New York Times, p. ST4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wentrup 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Blander and Medzhitov 2004; Wentrup 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Blander and Medzhitov 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Eldakar et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleZDM
ISSN (print)1863-9690
ISSN (online)1863-9704
ScopeGeneral Mathematics

Other styles