How to format your references using the ZDM citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for ZDM. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Shneiderman, B. (2008). Computer science. Science 2.0. Science (New York, N.Y.), 319(5868), 1349–1350.
A journal article with 2 authors
Falzarano, D., & Feldmann, H. (2015). Virology. Delineating Ebola entry. Science (New York, N.Y.), 347(6225), 947–948.
A journal article with 3 authors
Richardson, J. E., Melosh, H. J., & Greenberg, R. (2004). Impact-induced seismic activity on asteroid 433 Eros: a surface modification process. Science (New York, N.Y.), 306(5701), 1526–1529.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Kang, Y., Kuybeda, O., de Waal, P. W., Mukherjee, S., Van Eps, N., Dutka, P., et al. (2018). Cryo-EM structure of human rhodopsin bound to an inhibitory G protein. Nature, 558(7711), 553–558.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cofnas, A. (2011). Trading Binary Options. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Pickering, S. (2008). Counter-Terrorism Policing: Community, Cohesion and Security. (J. McCulloch & D. Wright-Neville, Eds.). New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Matsumoto, N. (2009). Gene Analysis of Marfan Syndrome. In T. Kazui & S. Takamoto (Eds.), Advances in Understanding Aortic Diseases (pp. 23–27). Tokyo: Springer Japan.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for ZDM.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2015, January 15). Sea Level Rise Has Been Miscalculated. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1977). Control of the National Science Foundation Peer Review Study (No. HRD-77-67). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Abrahamian, A. (2012). Diagnosis and treatment of childhood depression: A resource for pediatricians (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L. (2009, March 1). From Educators, Caution on Parent Fund-Raisers and Foundations. New York Times, p. LI5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Shneiderman 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Falzarano and Feldmann 2015; Shneiderman 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Falzarano and Feldmann 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Kang et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleZDM
ISSN (print)1863-9690
ISSN (online)1863-9704
ScopeGeneral Mathematics

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