How to format your references using the ZDM citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for ZDM. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Leutgeb, S. (2008). Neuroscience. Detailed differences. Science (New York, N.Y.), 319(5870), 1623–1624.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rouyer, F., & Chatterjee, A. (2015). Circadian clocks: A receptor for subtle temperature changes. Nature, 527(7579), 449–451.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bradley, J., Reuter, D., & Frings, S. (2001). Facilitation of calmodulin-mediated odor adaptation by cAMP-gated channel subunits. Science (New York, N.Y.), 294(5549), 2176–2178.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Pisitkun, P., Deane, J. A., Difilippantonio, M. J., Tarasenko, T., Satterthwaite, A. B., & Bolland, S. (2006). Autoreactive B cell responses to RNA-related antigens due to TLR7 gene duplication. Science (New York, N.Y.), 312(5780), 1669–1672.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bernstein, L., & Yuhas, C. M. (2005). Trustworthy Systems through Quantitative Software Engineering. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Doris, K. (2006). Wide-Bandwidth High-Dynamic Range D/A Converters. (A. van Roermund & D. Leenaerts, Eds.) (Vol. 871). Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Pavlovic, M., & Balint, B. (2013). Adult Stem Cells (the Concept of VSEL-Cell). In B. Balint (Ed.), Stem Cells and Tissue Engineering (pp. 21–22). New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for ZDM.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2017, May 10). We Just Got An Amazing View Of A Huge Lava Lake On Jupiter’s Moon Io. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1999). Telecommunications Technology: Federal Funding for Schools and Libraries (No. HEHS-99-133). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bunkley, R. L. (2010). A mentoring program for adolescents in a placement facility: A grant proposal project (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron, J. (2017, January 6). New Archbishop in Newark Cites ‘Chasm Between Life and Faith.’ New York Times, p. A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Leutgeb 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Leutgeb 2008; Rouyer and Chatterjee 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rouyer and Chatterjee 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Pisitkun et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleZDM
ISSN (print)1863-9690
ISSN (online)1863-9704
ScopeGeneral Mathematics

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