How to format your references using the Computers and Fluids citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computers and Fluids. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Caldecott KW. Cell signaling. The BRCT domain: signaling with friends? Science 2003;302:579–80.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cane MA, Evans M. CLIMATE VARIABILITY: Enhanced: Do the Tropics Rule? Science 2000;290:1107–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Paul JW, West JP, Gitler AD. Cell Biology. Clogging information flow in ALS. Science 2014;345:1118–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Tian Y, Stroppa A, Chai Y, Yan L, Wang S, Barone P, et al. Cross coupling between electric and magnetic orders in a multiferroic metal-organic framework. Sci Rep 2014;4:6062.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Savaux V, Louët Y. MMSE-Based Algorithm for Joint Signal Detection, Channel and Noise Variance Estimation for OFDM Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
Munk R, editor. Moses Mendelssohn’s Metaphysics and Aesthetics. vol. 13. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Minarovits J. Epigenotypes of Latent Herpesvirus Genomes. In: Doerfler W, Böhm P, editors. DNA Methylation: Development, Genetic Disease and Cancer, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006, p. 61–80.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computers and Fluids.

Blog post
Hale T. This 12 Black Dot Illusion Is Blowing A Lot Of Minds. IFLScience 2016. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. DP Insurance: A Management Tool. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1988.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Li S. Semiconductor and metal oxide nanoparticles: Synthesis, physical properties and industrial application. Doctoral dissertation. Columbia University, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Otis J. Raising Grandchildren in a Home That’s Brimming With Love, and Open to All. New York Times 2017:A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComputers and Fluids
AbbreviationComput. Fluids
ISSN (print)0045-7930
ScopeGeneral Computer Science
General Engineering

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