How to format your references using the Cambridge Journal of Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cambridge Journal of Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Astin, C. (2009). Helping young scientists to speak for themselves. Nature, 460(7256), 683.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ohmura, A., & Wild, M. (2002). Climate change. Is the hydrological cycle accelerating? Science (New York, N.Y.), 298(5597), 1345–1346.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gupta, G., Jalil, M. B. A., & Liang, G. (2014). Evaluation of mobility in thin Bi2Se3 topological insulator for prospects of local electrical interconnects. Scientific Reports, 4, 6838.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Kusch, T., Florens, L., Macdonald, W. H., Swanson, S. K., Glaser, R. L., Yates, J. R., 3rd, Abmayr, S. M., Washburn, M. P., & Workman, J. L. (2004). Acetylation by Tip60 is required for selective histone variant exchange at DNA lesions. Science (New York, N.Y.), 306(5704), 2084–2087.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Melville, A. (2010). Political Atlas of the Modern World. Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Spath, D., & Fähnrich, K.-P. (Eds.). (2007). Advances in Services Innovations. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Arseneault, T., & Filion, M. (2016). Phenazine-Producing Pseudomonas spp. as Biocontrol Agents of Plant Pathogens. In D. P. Singh, H. B. Singh, & R. Prabha (Eds.), Microbial Inoculants in Sustainable Agricultural Productivity: Vol. 2: Functional Applications (pp. 53–68). Springer India.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cambridge Journal of Education.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, August 5). The Autonomous Killing Systems Of The Future Are Already Here, They’re Just Not Necessarily Weapons – Yet. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2013). Indian Affairs: Management Challenges Continue to Hinder Efforts to Improve Indian Education (GAO-13-342T). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mannar, N. K. (2017). Hri-Tech Consultants, LLC [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2010, June 15). Chef’s Choice Is Rooting for Italy, Family Style. New York Times, B13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Astin, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Astin, 2009; Ohmura & Wild, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ohmura & Wild, 2002)
  • Three authors: (Gupta et al., 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Kusch et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleCambridge Journal of Education
AbbreviationCamb. J. Educ.
ISSN (print)0305-764X
ISSN (online)1469-3577

Other styles