How to format your references using the Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dolgin E. Research technique: the murine candidate. Nature. 2011 Jun 8;474(7350):S14-5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sadler PM, Tai RH. Transitions. The two high-school pillars supporting college science. Science. 2007 Jul 27;317(5837):457–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Song C, Wang P, Makse HA. A phase diagram for jammed matter. Nature. 2008 May 29;453(7195):629–32.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Hsueh YP, Wang TF, Yang FC, Sheng M. Nuclear translocation and transcription regulation by the membrane-associated guanylate kinase CASK/LIN-2. Nature. 2000 Mar 16;404(6775):298–302.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Smith V. Toni Morrison. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
Barboiu M, editor. Constitutional Dynamic Chemistry. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. XII, 320 p. (Topics in Current Chemistry; vol. 322).
A chapter in an edited book
Yanling H, Hong W, Dehua L. Space-Time Variation Operator Set in Possibility Construction Space. In: Cai Z, Tong H, Kang Z, Liu Y, editors. Computational Intelligence and Intelligent Systems: 5th International Symposium, ISICA 2010, Wuhan, China, October 22-24, 2010 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010. p. 29–36. (Communications in Computer and Information Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine.

Blog post
Hamilton K. Four Myths About Diabetes Debunked. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Precollege Math and Science Education: Department of Energy’s Precollege Program Managed Ineffectively. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994 Sep. Report No.: HEHS-94-208.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sydow K. A life review and Memory Album program to enhance family communication in assisted living [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines GG. DC Comics Unveils New Power Couple. New York Times. 2012 Aug 27;C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleYale Journal of Biology and Medicine
ISSN (print)0044-0086
ISSN (online)1551-4056

Other styles