How to format your references using the Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lloyd S. Quantum information matters. Science. 2008 Feb 29;319(5867):1209–11.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ikkala O, ten Brinke G. Functional materials based on self-assembly of polymeric supramolecules. Science. 2002 Mar 29;295(5564):2407–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Arjona A, Escudero M, Gómez CM. Updating of attentional and premotor allocation resources as function of previous trial outcome. Sci Rep. 2014 Mar 31;4:4526.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Cheng EHY, Sheiko TV, Fisher JK, Craigen WJ, Korsmeyer SJ. VDAC2 inhibits BAK activation and mitochondrial apoptosis. Science. 2003 Jul 25;301(5632):513–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rowe WB. Modern Grinding Techniques. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Kirsch R, editor. Groundwater Geophysics: A Tool for Hydrogeology. Second Edition. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009. XX, 548 p. 333 illus., 16 illus. in color.
A chapter in an edited book
Kotulski Z, Szczepiński W. Functions of Independent Random Variables. In: Szczepinski W, editor. Error Analysis with Applications in Engineering. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2010. p. 91–105. (Solid Mechanics and Its Applications).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew E. Terminator-Style 3D Printer Materializes Objects From Pools Of Liquid [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Multiple Teacher Training Programs: Information on Budgets, Services, and Target Groups. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995 Feb. Report No.: HEHS-95-71FS.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kim SC. Defiant institutionalization: Democratization and social movements in South Korea, 1984–2002 [Doctoral dissertation]. [New York, NY]: Columbia University; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt) SK. World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Ex-Premier’s Real Estate Deal Investigated. New York Times. 2005 Jul 12;A12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleYale Journal of Biology and Medicine
ISSN (print)0044-0086
ISSN (online)1551-4056

Other styles