How to format your references using the Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Delft J. MESOSCOPIC PHYSICS: Quantum Dots as Tunable Kondo Impurities. Science. 2000 Sep 22;289(5487):2064–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Agosta SJ, Dunham AE. Comment on “How the horned lizard got its horns.” Science. 2004 Oct 8;306(5694):230; author reply 230.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kurth I, Georgescu RE, O’Donnell ME. A solution to release twisted DNA during chromosome replication by coupled DNA polymerases. Nature. 2013 Apr 4;496(7443):119–22.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Wilhelm BT, Marguerat S, Watt S, Schubert F, Wood V, Goodhead I, et al. Dynamic repertoire of a eukaryotic transcriptome surveyed at single-nucleotide resolution. Nature. 2008 Jun 26;453(7199):1239–43.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bayuk JL, Healey J, Rohmeyer P, Sachs MH, Schmidt J, Weiss J. Cyber Security Policy Guidebook. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
Jakimovski A. Walsh Equiconvergence of Complex Interpolating Polynomials. Sharma A, Szabados J, editors. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2006. XIV, 298 p. (Springer Monographs in Mathematics).
A chapter in an edited book
Hu J, Wang Z, Gao H. Probability-Guaranteed $$H_\infty $$ H ∞ Finite-Horizon Filtering with Sensor Saturations. In: Wang Z, Gao H, editors. Nonlinear Stochastic Systems with Network-Induced Phenomena: Recursive Filtering and Sliding-Mode Design. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 101–18.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine.

Blog post
Fang J. Misshaped Fossil Plankton Signal Mass Extinctions [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Reorganization of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Western Test Range at Vandenberg Air Force Base, California. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1977 Jul. Report No.: FPCD-77-65.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bornmann JW. Becoming soldiers: Army Basic Training and the negotiation of identity [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Fausset R. Black Man’s Shooting Recalls Southern Wounds. New York Times. 2016 Jul 3;A10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleYale Journal of Biology and Medicine
ISSN (print)0044-0086
ISSN (online)1551-4056

Other styles