How to format your references using the Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sime LC. Climate. Greenland deglaciation puzzles. Science. 2014 Sep 5;345(6201):1116–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gilfanov M, Bogdán A. An upper limit on the contribution of accreting white dwarfs to the type Ia supernova rate. Nature. 2010 Feb 18;463(7283):924–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Li C, Zhang X, Cao Z. Triangular and Fibonacci number patterns driven by stress on core/shell microstructures. Science. 2005 Aug 5;309(5736):909–11.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Blagodatski A, Kryuchkov M, Sergeev A, Klimov AA, Shcherbakov MR, Enin GA, et al. Under- and over-water halves of Gyrinidae beetle eyes harbor different corneal nanocoatings providing adaptation to the water and air environments. Sci Rep. 2014 Aug 8;4:6004.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Waigh TA. The Physics of Living Processes. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
Grabot B, Vallespir B, Gomes S, Bouras A, Kiritsis D, editors. Advances in Production Management Systems. Innovative and Knowledge-Based Production Management in a Global-Local World: IFIP WG 5.7 International Conference, APMS 2014, Ajaccio, France, September 20-24, 2014, Proceedings, Part I. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014. XXI, 611 p. 187 illus. (IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology; vol. 438).
A chapter in an edited book
Li SE, Deng K. Recent Advances in Nonsingular Terminal Sliding Mode Control Method. In: Liu L, Zhu Q, Cheng L, Wang Y, Zhao D, editors. Applied Methods and Techniques for Mechatronic Systems: Modelling, Identification and Control. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014. p. 79–97. (Lecture Notes in Control and Information Sciences).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine.

Blog post
Fang J. Bees Prefer Nectar Laced with Pesticides. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Granite Sentry. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1992 Sep. Report No.: IMTEC-92-84R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Croghan A. The Effects of Depressive Symptomatology, Intrusive Thinking, and Age on Cognitive Functioning [Doctoral dissertation]. [Edwardsville, IL]: Southern Illinois University; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G. Petke Departs, Certain He Gave All That He Could. New York Times. 2010 Oct 31;SP9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleYale Journal of Biology and Medicine
ISSN (print)0044-0086
ISSN (online)1551-4056

Other styles