How to format your references using the Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Eisenberg RS. Science and the law. Patent swords and shields. Science. 2003 Feb 14;299(5609):1018–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Brown KM, Fialko Y. “Melt welt” mechanism of extreme weakening of gabbro at seismic slip rates. Nature. 2012 Aug 30;488(7413):638–41.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Saitou M, Barton SC, Surani MA. A molecular programme for the specification of germ cell fate in mice. Nature. 2002 Jul 18;418(6895):293–300.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Dello Ioio R, Nakamura K, Moubayidin L, Perilli S, Taniguchi M, Morita MT, et al. A genetic framework for the control of cell division and differentiation in the root meristem. Science. 2008 Nov 28;322(5906):1380–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Meyer VR. Pitfalls and Errors of HPLC in Pictures. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2013.
An edited book
1.
Caravenna F. Probabilità: Un’introduzione attraverso modelli e applicazioni. Dai Pra P, editor. Milano: Springer; 2013. X, 403 pagg. (UNITEXT; vol. 67).
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Mckenna C, Mcavinia C. Difference and Discontinuity – Making Meaning Through Hypertexts. In: Land R, Bayne S, editors. Digital Difference: Perspectives on Online Learning. Rotterdam: SensePublishers; 2011. p. 45–60.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine.

Blog post
1.
Taub B. Woman Has Baby Using Ovary Frozen When She Was A Child [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/woman-has-baby-using-frozen-ovary-when-she-was-child/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Fusion Energy: Actions Needed to Finalize Cost and Schedule Estimates for U.S. Contributions to an International Experimental Reactor. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2014 Jun. Report No.: GAO-14-499.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Nam Y-H. On Throughput-Reliability-Delay Tradeoffs in Wireless Networks [Doctoral dissertation]. [Columbus, OH]: Ohio State University; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Kenigsberg B. Film Series. New York Times. 2017 Jul 6;C20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleYale Journal of Biology and Medicine
ISSN (print)0044-0086
ISSN (online)1551-4056
Scope

Other styles