How to format your references using the Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cleland AN. PHYSICS. Pumping up the quantum. Science. 2015 Oct 16;350(6258):280.
A journal article with 2 authors
Furukawa A, Tanaka H. Violation of the incompressibility of liquid by simple shear flow. Nature. 2006 Sep 28;443(7110):434–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Childs AM, Gosset D, Webb Z. Universal computation by multiparticle quantum walk. Science. 2013 Feb 15;339(6121):791–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Krimigis SM, Mitchell DG, Roelof EC, Hsieh KC, McComas DJ. Imaging the interaction of the heliosphere with the interstellar medium from Saturn with Cassini. Science. 2009 Nov 13;326(5955):971–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
French BA. Chronicles Through the Centuries. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2016.
An edited book
Kapur PK. Software Reliability Assessment with OR Applications. Pham H, Gupta A, Jha PC, editors. London: Springer; 2011. XXIV, 548 p. (Springer Series in Reliability Engineering).
A chapter in an edited book
Antony PJ. Krishna and Neha. In: Antony PJ, editor. Segregation Hurts: Voices of Youth with Disabilities and Their Families in India. Rotterdam: SensePublishers; 2013. p. 37–44.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. We’re Going To Find Out What Mars Sounds Like For The First Time In 2021 [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Comments on Senate Bill 991, A Bill to Establish a Department of Education. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1977 Jun. Report No.: B-149737.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Potter RH. Marx Generator Charged via Biperiodic Resonant Cascaded Transformers [Doctoral dissertation]. [Bloomington, IN]: Indiana University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rojas R, Mueller B. Conflicting Accounts Emerge on What Set Off Deadly Violence at Upstate Church. New York Times. 2015 Oct 16;A26.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleYale Journal of Biology and Medicine
ISSN (print)0044-0086
ISSN (online)1551-4056

Other styles