How to format your references using the Food Ethics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Food Ethics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bonetta, Laura. 2006. Protein purification: protein purification for structural proteomics. Nature 439: 1018.
A journal article with 2 authors
Benoist, Christophe, and Nir Hacohen. 2011. Immunology. Flow cytometry, amped up. Science (New York, N.Y.) 332: 677–678.
A journal article with 3 authors
Paar, J., B. P. Oldroyd, and G. Kastberger. 2000. Giant honeybees return to their nest sites. Nature 406: 475.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Stoleru, Dan, Ying Peng, Pipat Nawathean, and Michael Rosbash. 2005. A resetting signal between Drosophila pacemakers synchronizes morning and evening activity. Nature 438: 238–242.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Seeber, Petra, and Aryeh Shander. 2012. Basics of Blood Management. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Fischer, Xavier, Alain Daidie, Benoit Eynard, and Manuel Paredes, ed. 2016. Research in Interactive Design (Vol. 4): Mechanics, Design Engineering and Advanced Manufacturing. 1st ed. 2016. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Sandercock, Leonie, and Val Cavers. 2009. The Story of the Collingwood Neighbourhood House: A Unique Gathering Place. In Where Strangers Become Neighbours: Integrating Immigrants in Vancouver, Canada, ed. Giovanni Attili, 123–157. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Food Ethics.

Blog post
Andrew, Danielle. 2016. Why New Law Banning All Psychoactive Substances Will Be Just Another ‘War On Drugs’ Disaster. IFLScience. IFLScience. November 12.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1993. Automating Medical Information. AIMD-94-47R. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Borisova-Kidder, Ayuna. 2006. Meta-Analytical Estimates of Values of Environmental Services Enhanced by Government Agricultural Conservation Programs. Doctoral dissertation, Columbus, OH: Ohio State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Leguizamo, John. 2017. … I Faced a Hostile Audience (Kids). New York Times, March 21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bonetta 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Bonetta 2006; Benoist and Hacohen 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Benoist and Hacohen 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Stoleru et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleFood Ethics
AbbreviationFood Ethics
ISSN (print)2364-6853
ISSN (online)2364-6861

Other styles