How to format your references using the Food Ethics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Food Ethics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Neylon, Cameron. 2012. Science publishing: Open access must enable open use. Nature 492: 348–349.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sablowski, Robert, and Nicholas P. Harberd. 2005. Plant sciences. Plant genes on steroids. Science (New York, N.Y.) 307: 1569–1570.
A journal article with 3 authors
Koga, K., H. Tanaka, and X. C. Zeng. 2000. First-order transition in confined water between high-density liquid and low-density amorphous phases. Nature 408: 564–567.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Xie, Lili, Leah M. Miller, Champak Chatterjee, Olga Averin, Neil L. Kelleher, and Wilfred A. van der Donk. 2004. Lacticin 481: in vitro reconstitution of lantibiotic synthetase activity. Science (New York, N.Y.) 303: 679–681.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dimond, Bridgit. 2008. Legal Aspects of Mental Capacity. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
An edited book
Li, Peilin, and Xiaoyi Wang, ed. 2016. Ecological Migration, Development and Transformation: A Study of Migration and Poverty Reduction in Ningxia. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Engesgaard, Peter, Dorte Seifert, and Paulo Herrera. 2006. Bioclogging in Porous Media: Tracer Studies. In Riverbank Filtration Hydrology: Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Riverbank Filtration Hydrology Bratislava, Slovakia September 2004, ed. Stephen A. Hubbs, 93–118. Nato Science Series: IV: Earth and Environmental Sciences. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Food Ethics.

Blog post
Andrew, Danielle. 2016. I Spent The Past Seven Years Counting White Sharks – The Findings Are Troubling. IFLScience. IFLScience. July 25.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1987. FAA Work Force Issues. T-RCED-87-25. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kreisel, Michael. 2015. Gabor frames for quasicrystals and K-theory. Doctoral dissertation, College Park, MD: University of Maryland, College Park.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, George. 2011. Welcoming Back N.B.A. With Open Yawns. New York Times, November 29.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Neylon 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Sablowski and Harberd 2005; Neylon 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sablowski and Harberd 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Xie et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleFood Ethics
AbbreviationFood Ethics
ISSN (print)2364-6853
ISSN (online)2364-6861

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