How to format your references using the Food Ethics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Food Ethics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Narain, Sunita. 2012. Sanitation for all. Nature 486: 185.
A journal article with 2 authors
Shaked, Yeala, and Andrew Rose. 2013. Microbiology. Seas of superoxide. Science (New York, N.Y.) 340: 1176–1177.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dominici, Francesca, Michael Greenstone, and Cass R. Sunstein. 2014. Science and regulation. Particulate matter matters. Science (New York, N.Y.) 344: 257–259.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Wang, Zhiqiang, Jing Ma, Chika Miyoshi, Yuxin Li, Makito Sato, Yukino Ogawa, Tingting Lou, et al. 2018. Quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis of the molecular substrates of sleep need. Nature 558: 435–439.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chinesta, Francisco, Serge Cescotto, Elías Cueto, and Philippe Lorong. 2013. Natural Element Method for the Simulation of Structures and Processes. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Jullien, Vincent, ed. 2015. Seventeenth-Century Indivisibles Revisited. Vol. 49. Science Networks. Historical Studies. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Rauf, Saeed, Dorota Sienkiewicz-Paderewska, Dariusz P. Malinowski, M. Mubashar Hussain, Imtiaz Akram Khan Niazi, and Maria Kausar. 2016. Forages: Ecology, Breeding Objectives and Procedures. In Advances in Plant Breeding Strategies: Agronomic, Abiotic and Biotic Stress Traits, ed. Jameel M. Al-Khayri, Shri Mohan Jain, and Dennis V. Johnson, 149–201. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Food Ethics.

Blog post
Luntz, Stephen. 2016. Vaccine Against Alzheimer’s Disease Protein Passes First Stage Of Clinical Trials. IFLScience. IFLScience. December 15.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2009. Career and Technical Education: States Have Broad Flexibility in Implementing Perkins IV. GAO-09-683. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hogg, Jeannine H. 2014. An assessment of social vulnerability in Yuba County, California. Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barry, Ellen, and Sophia Kishkovsky. 2012. Russian Turnout Includes Thousands of Eager Election Observers. New York Times, March 5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Narain 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Narain 2012; Shaked and Rose 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Shaked and Rose 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Wang et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleFood Ethics
AbbreviationFood Ethics
ISSN (print)2364-6853
ISSN (online)2364-6861

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