How to format your references using the Food Ethics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Food Ethics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ball, Philip. 2014. Culture: Artistic alchemy. Nature 512: 26–27.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ryan, Russell J. H., and Bradley E. Bernstein. 2012. Molecular biology. Genetic events that shape the cancer epigenome. Science (New York, N.Y.) 336: 1513–1514.
A journal article with 3 authors
Totan, Yüksel, Emre Güler, and Mehmet Serdar Dervişoğulları. 2014. Brilliant Blue G assisted epiretinal membrane surgery. Scientific reports 4: 3956.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Cottrell, R. D., J. A. Tarduno, W. W. Sager, and A. A. Koppers. 2000. Late cretaceous true polar wander: not so fast. Science (New York, N.Y.) 288: 2283a.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Benmammar, Badr, and Asma Amraoui. 2013. Radio Resource Allocation and Dynamic Spectrum Access. Hoboken, NJ USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Hirschel, Ernst Heinrich. 2009. Selected Aerothermodynamic Design Problems of Hypersonic Flight Vehicles. Edited by Claus Weiland. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Sanz, Ricardo, Julita Bermejo, Ignacio López, and Jaime Gómez. 2008. A Real-Time Agent System Perspective of Meaning and Sapience. In Toward Artificial Sapience: Principles and Methods for Wise Systems, ed. Rene V. Mayorga and Leonid I. Perlovsky, 61–73. London: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Food Ethics.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. Read My Lips: Truly Empathic Robots Will Be A Long Time Coming. IFLScience. IFLScience. November 2.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2008. Telecommunications: Survey of State Regulatory Commissions (GAO-08-662SP, June 2008), an E-supplement to GAO-08-633. GAO-08-662SP. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Khojandi, Niloufar. 2017. Investigating Secondary Infections and their Impact on Host Fitness in the Dictyostelium-Burkholderia Symbiosis System. Doctoral dissertation, Edwardsville, IL: Southern Illinois University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Kelly, Michael. 1992. THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: Undeclared Candidate; Perot Stresses Homey Image, But the Image Is No Accident. New York Times, May 26.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ball 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Ryan and Bernstein 2012; Ball 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ryan and Bernstein 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Cottrell et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleFood Ethics
AbbreviationFood Ethics
ISSN (print)2364-6853
ISSN (online)2364-6861

Other styles