How to format your references using the Food Ethics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Food Ethics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mackenzie, D. 2000. MATHEMATICS: Taking the Measure of the Wildest Dance on Earth. Science (New York, N.Y.) 290: 1883–1884.
A journal article with 2 authors
Stixrude, Lars, and Bijaya Karki. 2005. Structure and freezing of MgSiO3 liquid in Earth’s lower mantle. Science (New York, N.Y.) 310: 297–299.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wittlinger, Matthias, Rüdiger Wehner, and Harald Wolf. 2006. The ant odometer: stepping on stilts and stumps. Science (New York, N.Y.) 312: 1965–1967.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Thibault, Pierre, Martin Dierolf, Andreas Menzel, Oliver Bunk, Christian David, and Franz Pfeiffer. 2008. High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy. Science (New York, N.Y.) 321: 379–382.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Teague, Kevin Anthony, and Nicole Gallicchio. 2017. The Evolution of Meteorology. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Veves, Aristidis, and Rayaz A. Malik, ed. 2007. Diabetic Neuropathy: Clinical Management. Second Edition. Clinical Diabetes. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press.
A chapter in an edited book
Darias Jerez, José, M. Cueto, and A. R. Díaz-Marrero. 2006. The Chemistry of Marine Pulmonate Gastropods. In Molluscs: From Chemo-ecological Study to Biotechnological Application, ed. Guido Cimino and Margherita Gavagnin, 105–131. Progress in Molecular and Subcellular Biology. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Food Ethics.

Blog post
Luntz, Stephen. 2016. Signs Of 14,000-Year-Old Human Habitation Found In Southern South America. IFLScience. IFLScience. September 28.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1993. Tax Abatement. HRD-93-27R. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sutherland, Claire Euline. 2013. Positive deviance during organization change: Researchers’ social construction of expanded university goals. Doctoral dissertation, Malibu, CA: Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rojas, Rick. 2017. During Rikers Upheaval, the ‘Prettiest Village in Maine’ Beckoned. New York Times, April 30.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Mackenzie 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Mackenzie 2000; Stixrude and Karki 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Stixrude and Karki 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Thibault et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleFood Ethics
AbbreviationFood Ethics
ISSN (print)2364-6853
ISSN (online)2364-6861

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