How to format your references using the Food Ethics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Food Ethics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Saper, Clifford B. 2006. Biomedicine. Life, the universe, and body temperature. Science (New York, N.Y.) 314: 773–774.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sprang, Stephen R., and Jackson Chief Elk. 2012. Cell signaling. Structural origins of receptor bias. Science (New York, N.Y.) 335: 1055–1056.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ye, Keqiong, Lucy Malinina, and Dinshaw J. Patel. 2003. Recognition of small interfering RNA by a viral suppressor of RNA silencing. Nature 426: 874–878.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Massimini, Marcello, Fabio Ferrarelli, Reto Huber, Steve K. Esser, Harpreet Singh, and Giulio Tononi. 2005. Breakdown of cortical effective connectivity during sleep. Science (New York, N.Y.) 309: 2228–2232.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gerardi, Michael H. 2010. Troubleshooting the Sequencing Batch Reactor. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Levine, Adam I., Samuel DeMaria, Andrew D. Schwartz, and Alan J. Sim, ed. 2013. The Comprehensive Textbook of Healthcare Simulation. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Delgado, Gabriela, Rosario Morales, Jose Luis Mendez, and Alejandro Cravioto. 2011. The Re-emergence of Cholera in the Americas. In Epidemiological and Molecular Aspects on Cholera, ed. T. Ramamurthy and S. K. Bhattacharya, 79–95. New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Food Ethics.

Blog post
Luntz, Stephen. 2015. How Do Parasitic Birds Learn To Be Like Their Biological Parents? IFLScience. IFLScience. November 5.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1991. Better DOE Controls Needed Over Contractors’ Discretionary R&D Funds. T-RCED-91-25. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Carpenter, Delesha Miller. 2009. Understanding the effect of conflicting information on medication adherence for vasculitis patients. Doctoral dissertation, Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, Sophia. 2015. Maya Plisetskaya, Fluid Soviet Ballerina, Dies at 89. New York Times, May 4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Saper 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Saper 2006; Sprang and Elk 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sprang and Elk 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Massimini et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleFood Ethics
AbbreviationFood Ethics
ISSN (print)2364-6853
ISSN (online)2364-6861

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