How to format your references using the Food Ethics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Food Ethics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Marshall, E. 2000. A sinister plot or victim of politics? Science (New York, N.Y.) 289: 571.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yu, Hak Ki, and Jong-Lam Lee. 2014. Growth mechanism of metal-oxide nanowires synthesized by electron beam evaporation: a self-catalytic vapor-liquid-solid process. Scientific reports 4: 6589.
A journal article with 3 authors
Li, Cheng-Yu T., Mu-Ming Poo, and Yang Dan. 2009. Burst spiking of a single cortical neuron modifies global brain state. Science (New York, N.Y.) 324: 643–646.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Chen, Xiaojing, Kai Sun, Shufan Jiao, Ning Cai, Xue Zhao, Hanbing Zou, Yuexia Xie, Zhengshi Wang, Ming Zhong, and Lixin Wei. 2014. High levels of SIRT1 expression enhance tumorigenesis and associate with a poor prognosis of colorectal carcinoma patients. Scientific reports 4: 7481.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Durbin, P. A., and B. A. Pettersson Reif. 2010. Statistical Theory and Modeling for Turbulent Flows. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Koslowski, Peter, ed. 2005. The Discovery of Historicity in German Idealism and Historism. Studies in Economic Ethics and Philosophy. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Awange, Joseph L., Erik W. Grafarend, Béla Paláncz, and Piroska Zaletnyik. 2010. Polynomial resultants. In Algebraic Geodesy and Geoinformatics, ed. Erik W. Grafarend, Béla Paláncz, and Piroska Zaletnyik, 49–62. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Food Ethics.

Blog post
Hamilton, Kristy. 2016. Fossil Teeth Reveal The Secret Rise Of Mammals – Millions Of Years Before Dinosaurs Became Extinct. IFLScience. IFLScience. June 20.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2000. Critical Infrastructure Protection: Comments on the National Plan for Information Systems Protection. T-AIMD-00-72. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zuckerman, Teddi. 2017. The Effect of Communication Between Parents and their Emerging Adult Offspring on Depression and Career Search Self-efficacy. Doctoral dissertation, Washington, DC: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, George. 2010. Nation of Individuals Sees Tennis Identity Fade. New York Times, September 7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Marshall 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Marshall 2000; Yu and Lee 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Yu and Lee 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Chen et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleFood Ethics
AbbreviationFood Ethics
ISSN (print)2364-6853
ISSN (online)2364-6861

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