How to format your references using the Estuaries and Coasts citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Estuaries and Coasts. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Connor, J. T. H. 2004. Beyond the ivory tower. The Victorian revolution in surgery. Science (New York, N.Y.) 304: 54–55.
A journal article with 2 authors
Binder, G. K., and D. E. Griffin. 2001. Interferon-gamma-mediated site-specific clearance of alphavirus from CNS neurons. Science (New York, N.Y.) 293: 303–306.
A journal article with 3 authors
Peng, Liang, Zhi-Gang Song, and Shun-Chang Jiao. 2014. Efficacy analysis of tyrosine kinase inhibitors on rare non-small cell lung cancer patients harboring complex EGFR mutations. Scientific reports 4: 6104.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Gonen, Tamir, Yifan Cheng, Piotr Sliz, Yoko Hiroaki, Yoshinori Fujiyoshi, Stephen C. Harrison, and Thomas Walz. 2005. Lipid-protein interactions in double-layered two-dimensional AQP0 crystals. Nature 438: 633–638.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Silk, Roger D., and James W. Lintott. 2011. Managing Foundations and Charitable Trusts. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Connelly, Robert, Asia Ivić Weiss, and Walter Whiteley, ed. 2014. Rigidity and Symmetry. Vol. 70. Fields Institute Communications. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Olivetti, Lucio, Gian Carlo Mazza, and Sara Mombelloni. 2009. Female Reproductive System: Normal Gross and Microscopic Anatomy. In Imaging of Urogenital Diseases: A Color Atlas, ed. Luigi Grazioli and Lucio Olivetti, 65–72. Milano: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Estuaries and Coasts.

Blog post
Taub, Ben. 2017. “Tree Man” May Have Finally Been Cured Of His Incredible Condition. IFLScience. IFLScience. January 9.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2010. Aviation Safety: Improved Data Quality and Analysis Capabilities Are Needed as FAA Plans a Risk-Based Approach to Safety Oversight. GAO-10-414. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Obi, Chinwendu Nkechi. 2012. Evaluation of feeding varying levels of digestible lysine on broiler breeder male reproductive characteristics and body weight changes. Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State, MS: Mississippi State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Cowley, Stacy, and Jessica Silver-Greenberg. 2017. Lost Paperwork May Erase Student Debt for Tens of Thousands. New York Times, July 17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Connor 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Binder and Griffin 2001; Connor 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Binder and Griffin 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Gonen et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleEstuaries and Coasts
AbbreviationEstuaries Coast.
ISSN (print)1559-2723
ISSN (online)1559-2731
ScopeAquatic Science
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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