How to format your references using the Estuaries and Coasts citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Estuaries and Coasts. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Curl, Robert F. 2005. Obituary: Richard E. Smalley (1943-2005). Nature 438: 1094.
A journal article with 2 authors
Peñuelas, J., and I. Filella. 2001. Phenology. Responses to a warming world. Science (New York, N.Y.) 294: 793–795.
A journal article with 3 authors
Baum, David A., Stacey Dewitt Smith, and Samuel S. S. Donovan. 2005. Evolution. The tree-thinking challenge. Science (New York, N.Y.) 310: 979–980.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Song, Ning-Ning, Ya-Jiao Ke, Hai-Tao Yang, Hu Zhang, Xiang-Qun Zhang, Bao-Gen Shen, and Zhao-Hua Cheng. 2013. Integrating giant microwave absorption with magnetic refrigeration in one multifunctional intermetallic compound of LaFe(11.6)Si(1.4)C(0.2)H(1.7). Scientific reports 3: 2291.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gallant, Brian J. 2006. Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response Manual. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Maydell, B. v. 2006. Enabling Social Policy. Edited by K. Borchardt, K-D Henke, R. Leitner, R. Muffels, M. Quante, P-L Rauhala, G. Verschraegen, M. Żukowski, and Friederike Wütscher. Vol. 26. Wissenschaftsethik Und Technikfolgenbeurteilung, Schriftenreihe Der Europäischen Akademie Zur Erforschung von Folgen Wissenschaftlich-Technischer Entwicklungen Bad Neuenahr-Ahrweiler GmbH. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Kleppisch, Thomas. 2009. Phosphodiesterases in the Central Nervous System. In cGMP: Generators, Effectors and Therapeutic Implications, ed. Harald H. H. W. Schmidt, Franz Hofmann, and Johannes-Peter Stasch, 71–92. Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Estuaries and Coasts.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. The Atlantic Is Entering A Cool Phase That Will Change The World’s Weather. IFLScience. IFLScience. June 1.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1978. Bureau of Indian Affairs Not Operating Boarding Schools Efficiently. CED-78-56. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Darvish, Hossein. 2015. Smart Power Grid Synchronization with Nonlinear Estimation. Doctoral dissertation, Edwardsville, IL: Southern Illinois University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams, John. 2016. Gifted Frenemies, Egging Each Other on to Greatness. New York Times, August 22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Curl 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Peñuelas and Filella 2001; Curl 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Peñuelas and Filella 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Song et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleEstuaries and Coasts
AbbreviationEstuaries Coast.
ISSN (print)1559-2723
ISSN (online)1559-2731
ScopeAquatic Science
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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