How to format your references using the Yakuzai Ekigaku (Japanese Journal of Pharmacoepidemiology) citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Yakuzai Ekigaku (Japanese Journal of Pharmacoepidemiology). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stafford N. Turbulent times. Nature. 2006 Sep 28;443(7110):385.
A journal article with 2 authors
Coates JC, de Bono M. Antagonistic pathways in neurons exposed to body fluid regulate social feeding in Caenorhabditis elegans. Nature. 2002 Oct 31;419(6910):925–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hauke P, Tagliacozzo L, Lewenstein M. Physics. Speeding up quantum field theories. Science. 2012 Jun 1;336(6085):1122–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Münker C, Pfänder JA, Weyer S, Büchl A, Kleine T, Mezger K. Evolution of planetary cores and the Earth-Moon system from Nb/Ta systematics. Science. 2003 Jul 4;301(5629):84–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rider MJ. Design and Analysis of Mechanisms. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
Yang L. Interference Coordination for 5G Cellular Networks. Zhang W, editor. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. X, 66 p. 17 illus., 15 illus. in color. (SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering).
A chapter in an edited book
Laird S, Lawson D, Jensen HJ. The Tangled Nature Model of Evolutionary Ecology: An Overview. In: Deutsch A, Parra RB de la, Boer RJ de, Diekmann O, Jagers P, Kisdi E, et al., editors. Mathematical Modeling of Biological Systems, Volume II: Epidemiology, Evolution and Ecology,Immunology, Neural Systems and the Brain, and Innovative Mathematical Methods. Boston, MA: Birkhäuser; 2008. p. 49–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Yakuzai Ekigaku (Japanese Journal of Pharmacoepidemiology).

Blog post
Andrew E. Cybersecurity’s Weakest Link: Humans [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Working Capital Funds: Three Agency Perspectives. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994 May. Report No.: AIMD-94-121.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Washington-Cobb SL. Exploring the Experiences of Former Alternative Education Participants: Case Studies [Doctoral dissertation]. [ St. Charles, MO]: Lindenwood University; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Leguizamo J. ‘Too Bad You’re Latin.’ New York Times. 2016 Oct 21;A27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleYakuzai Ekigaku (Japanese Journal of Pharmacoepidemiology)
ISSN (print)1342-0445
ISSN (online)1882-790X

Other styles