How to format your references using the Yakuzai Ekigaku (Japanese Journal of Pharmacoepidemiology) citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Yakuzai Ekigaku (Japanese Journal of Pharmacoepidemiology). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Skinner JL. Chemistry. Following the motions of water molecules in aqueous solutions. Science. 2010 May 21;328(5981):985–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Morel FMM, Price NM. The biogeochemical cycles of trace metals in the oceans. Science. 2003 May 9;300(5621):944–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Bacles CFE, Lowe AJ, Ennos RA. Effective seed dispersal across a fragmented landscape. Science. 2006 Feb 3;311(5761):628.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Luchtmann M, Beuing O, Skalej M, Kohl J, Serowy S, Bernarding J, et al. Gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography in brain death. Sci Rep. 2014 Jan 13;4:3659.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Williamson T. Identity and Discrimination. The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex, PO19 8SQ, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2013.
An edited book
1.
Ilic D, editor. Stem Cell Banking. New York, NY: Springer; 2014. XVII, 168 p. 26 illus., 21 illus. in color. (Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine).
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Manente M, Minghetti V, Mingotto E. Introduction to Reporting Systems. In: Minghetti V, Mingotto E, editors. Responsible Tourism and CSR: Assessment Systems for Sustainable Development of SMEs in Tourism. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. p. 27–32. (CSR, Sustainability, Ethics & Governance).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Yakuzai Ekigaku (Japanese Journal of Pharmacoepidemiology).

Blog post
1.
Fang J. Early Exposure To Pets, Dirt & Germs Are Good For Babies [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/early-exposure-pets-dirt-germs-are-good-babies/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Status of the Mariner Jupiter/Saturn 1977 Project. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1977 May. Report No.: PSAD-77-103.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Lucas MA. Bridging the Gap Between Schools and Families Through Teacher Home Visits [Doctoral dissertation]. [ St. Charles, MO]: Lindenwood University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Crow K. Healing and Burnout, 12 Hours at a Stretch. New York Times. 2001 Jun 24;152.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleYakuzai Ekigaku (Japanese Journal of Pharmacoepidemiology)
ISSN (print)1342-0445
ISSN (online)1882-790X
Scope

Other styles