How to format your references using the Yakuzai Ekigaku (Japanese Journal of Pharmacoepidemiology) citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Yakuzai Ekigaku (Japanese Journal of Pharmacoepidemiology). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Piattelli-Palmarini M. Basic concepts: to put it simply. Nature. 2003 Dec 11;426(6967):607.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hunt KK, Vorburger SA. Tech.Sight. Gene therapy. Hurdles and hopes for cancer treatment. Science. 2002 Jul 19;297(5580):415–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
Marchevsky M, Higgins MJ, Bhattacharya S. Two coexisting vortex phases in the peak effect regime in a superconductor. Nature. 2001 Feb 1;409(6820):591–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Brar GA, Kiburz BM, Zhang Y, Kim J-E, White F, Amon A. Rec8 phosphorylation and recombination promote the step-wise loss of cohesins in meiosis. Nature. 2006 May 25;441(7092):532–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Marroni L, Perdomo I. Pricing and Hedging Financial Derivatives. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd; 2013.
An edited book
Tuniz C. Humans: An Unauthorized Biography. Tiberi Vipraio P, editor. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. XIII, 124 p. 25 illus., 15 illus. in color.
A chapter in an edited book
Yano T. Principle of Insertion and Characteristics. In: Sugano K, Yamamoto H, Kita H, editors. Double-Balloon Endoscopy: Theory and Practice. Tokyo: Springer Japan; 2006. p. 19–22.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Yakuzai Ekigaku (Japanese Journal of Pharmacoepidemiology).

Blog post
Andrew E. The Milky Way’s Black Hole Could be Surrounded by Ice [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. BIA and DOD Schools: Student Achievement and Other Characteristics Often Differ from Public Schools’. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2001 Sep. Report No.: GAO-01-934.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gurska DP. Peering Down the Bottomless Well: Myth in Thomas Mann’s Joseph Tetralogy [Doctoral dissertation]. [Carpinteria, CA]: Pacifica Graduate Institute; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hartocollis A. NYU Langone Restarts Emergency Room Damaged by Hurricane Sandy. New York Times. 2014 Apr 25;A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleYakuzai Ekigaku (Japanese Journal of Pharmacoepidemiology)
ISSN (print)1342-0445
ISSN (online)1882-790X

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