How to format your references using the Yakuzai Ekigaku (Japanese Journal of Pharmacoepidemiology) citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Yakuzai Ekigaku (Japanese Journal of Pharmacoepidemiology). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brown D. Mutant flu - the view from the newsroom. Nature. 2012 May 2;485(7396):7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zhou Z, Bai Y. Structural biology: analysis of protein-folding cooperativity. Nature. 2007 Feb 15;445(7129):E16-7; discussion E17-8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Koren I, Dagan G, Altaratz O. From aerosol-limited to invigoration of warm convective clouds. Science. 2014 Jun 6;344(6188):1143–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Damak S, Rong M, Yasumatsu K, Kokrashvili Z, Varadarajan V, Zou S, et al. Detection of sweet and umami taste in the absence of taste receptor T1r3. Science. 2003 Aug 8;301(5634):850–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Islam MR, Hossain ME, Moussavizadegan SH, Mustafiz S, Abou&xKassem JH. Advanced Petroleum Reservoir Simulation. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley &;#38; Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
Wise RR, Hoober JK, editors. The Structure and Function of Plastids. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2006. XL, 578 p. (Advances in Photosynthesis and Respiration; vol. 23).
A chapter in an edited book
Joarder R, Crundwell N. Case 5. In: Crundwell N, editor. Case Studies in Chest Imaging. London: Springer; 2012. p. 17–9.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Yakuzai Ekigaku (Japanese Journal of Pharmacoepidemiology).

Blog post
Carpineti A. Astronomers Have Observed Water Clouds In A Distant Star System [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Digital Television Transition: Majority of Broadcasters Are Prepared for the DTV Transition, but Some Technical and Coordination Issues Remain. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2008 Apr. Report No.: GAO-08-510.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Baker TN. The Impact of Undergraduate Research Participation on Research Self-Efficacy [Doctoral dissertation]. [Boca Raton, FL]: Florida Atlantic University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lehman S. A Times Reporter Gets a Surprise Trip to Prison. New York Times. 2017 Mar 29;A2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleYakuzai Ekigaku (Japanese Journal of Pharmacoepidemiology)
ISSN (print)1342-0445
ISSN (online)1882-790X

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