How to format your references using the International Journal of Thermal Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Thermal Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
D. Rind, The Sun’s role in climate variations, Science. 296 (2002) 673–677.
A journal article with 2 authors
H. Liu, L. Cheng, Cryo-EM shows the polymerase structures and a nonspooled genome within a dsRNA virus, Science. 349 (2015) 1347–1350.
A journal article with 3 authors
S.B. Otto, B.C. Rall, U. Brose, Allometric degree distributions facilitate food-web stability, Nature. 450 (2007) 1226–1229.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
S. Ilani, A. Yacoby, D. Mahalu, H. Shtrikman, Microscopic structure of the metal-insulator transition in two dimensions, Science. 292 (2001) 1354–1357.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J. Laycock, K. Meeran, Integrated Endocrinology, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2012.
An edited book
S. Antuña, R. Barco, eds., Essential Techniques in Elbow Surgery, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
U. Marti, Democracy in the Age of Global Markets, in: J.-C. Merle (Ed.), Spheres of Global Justice: Volume 1 Global Challenges to Liberal Democracy. Political Participation, Minorities and Migrations, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2013: pp. 65–74.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Thermal Sciences.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Watch a Clam “Lick” Salt Off a Table, IFLScience. (2014).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Policy and Procedures Pertaining to Procurement of ADP Equipment, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1978.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
T. Smith, Outsider leadership transitions: A phenomenological study of Army Reserve General Officers, Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
L. Lee, Knit 1, Curl Up 2, New York Times. (2015) D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Thermal Sciences
AbbreviationInt. J. Therm. Sci.
ISSN (print)1290-0729
ScopeGeneral Engineering
Condensed Matter Physics

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