How to format your references using the International Journal of Thermal Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Thermal Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J. Qiu, Obituary: Qian Xuesen (1911-2009), Nature. 462 (2009) 735.
A journal article with 2 authors
C. Khosla, Y. Tang, Chemistry. A new route to designer antibiotics, Science. 308 (2005) 367–368.
A journal article with 3 authors
S.T. Fiske, L.T. Harris, A.J.C. Cuddy, Social psychology. Why ordinary people torture enemy prisoners, Science. 306 (2004) 1482–1483.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
U.W. Hwang, M. Friedrich, D. Tautz, C.J. Park, W. Kim, Mitochondrial protein phylogeny joins myriapods with chelicerates, Nature. 413 (2001) 154–157.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
E.O. Afoakwa, Chocolate Science and Technology, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2016.
An edited book
P. Zanuttigh, Time-of-Flight and Structured Light Depth Cameras: Technology and Applications, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
V.J.P.D. Martinho, The Performance of Manufacturing in the European Union in the Context of Agricultural Economics, in: V.J.P.D. Martinho (Ed.), The Agricultural Economics of the 21st Century, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015: pp. 35–48.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Thermal Sciences.

Blog post
A. Carpineti, A Rare Transit Of Mercury Will Take Place This Monday - Here’s How To Watch It Live, IFLScience. (2016).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Guaranteed Student Loans: Actions to Ensure Continued Student Access to Subsidized Loans, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1995.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
D.C. French, A Case against E-Waste: Where One Country’s Trash is (Not) Another Country’s Treasure: Developing National E-Waste Legislation to Regulate E-Waste Exportation, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J.C. McKINLEY Jr, For Bronx, Officer’s Indictment Makes Good on Prosecutor’s Plea for Patience, New York Times. (2017) A22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Thermal Sciences
AbbreviationInt. J. Therm. Sci.
ISSN (print)1290-0729
ScopeGeneral Engineering
Condensed Matter Physics

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