How to format your references using the Internet Interventions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Internet Interventions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
de Waal, F.B.M., 2005. A century of getting to know the chimpanzee. Nature 437, 56–59.
A journal article with 2 authors
Libby, E., Ratcliff, W.C., 2014. Evolution. Ratcheting the evolution of multicellularity. Science 346, 426–427.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bino, A., Ardon, M., Shirman, E., 2005. Formation of a carbon-carbon triple bond by coupling reactions in aqueous solution. Science 308, 234–235.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Yin, L., Wang, J., Klein, P.S., Lazar, M.A., 2006. Nuclear receptor Rev-erbalpha is a critical lithium-sensitive component of the circadian clock. Science 311, 1002–1005.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Deschamps, J.-P., Bioul, G.J.A., Sutter, G.D., 2005. Synthesis of Arithmetic Circuits. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Mamula, P., Markowitz, J.E., Baldassano, R.N. (Eds.), 2013. Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease, 2nd ed. 2013. ed. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Diehl, M.C., Elmore, L.W., Holt, S.E., 2009. Telomere Dysfunction and the DNA Damage Response, in: Hiyama, K. (Ed.), Telomeres and Telomerase in Cancer. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, pp. 87–125.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Internet Interventions.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Enemy Within: The Fungus That Lives In Your Mouth And Kills As Many As MRSA [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1991. Transportation Infrastructure: Issues for Congressional Consideration During Reauthorization of Surface Transportation Programs (No. T-RCED-91-56). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Romer, C., 2017. WhatsUpDoc: A Patient Portal Technology (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G., 2014. For Outsiders, Overuse Isn’t a Worry. New York Times B14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (de Waal, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (de Waal, 2005; Libby and Ratcliff, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Libby and Ratcliff, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Yin et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternet Interventions
AbbreviationInternet Interv.
ISSN (print)2214-7829

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