How to format your references using the Internet Interventions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Internet Interventions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ramirez, A., 2015. The making of a science evangelist. Science 348, 726.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dupuy, T.J., Kraus, A.L., 2013. Distances, luminosities, and temperatures of the coldest known substellar objects. Science 341, 1492–1495.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bizzarro, M., Baker, J.A., Haack, H., 2004. Mg isotope evidence for contemporaneous formation of chondrules and refractory inclusions. Nature 431, 275–278.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
McManus, T.M., Valiente-Kroon, J.A., Horsley, S.A.R., Hao, Y., 2014. Illusions and cloaks for surface waves. Sci. Rep. 4, 5977.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cheremisinoff, N.P., 2013. Industrial Gas Flaring Practices. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Lawson, H.A., van Veen, D. (Eds.), 2016. Developing Community Schools, Community Learning Centers, Extended-service Schools and Multi-service Schools: International Exemplars for Practice, Policy and Research. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Sanati, S., Allred, D.C., 2011. The Progression of Pre-invasive to Invasive Cancer, in: Fitzgerald, R.C. (Ed.), Pre-Invasive Disease: Pathogenesis and Clinical Management. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 65–76.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Internet Interventions.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2015. Rice May Have Been Domesticated Three Separate Times Across Asia [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1988. Technology Transfer: Constraints Perceived by Federal Laboratory and Agency Officials (No. RCED-88-116BR). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sumner, I., 2010. Quantum wavepacket ab initio molecular dynamics: Simulating quantum nuclear effects in complex systems (Doctoral dissertation). Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
de la MERCED, M.J., 2017. Oscar Health and Humana Team Up in Small-Firm Venture. New York Times B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ramirez, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Dupuy and Kraus, 2013; Ramirez, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Dupuy and Kraus, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (McManus et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternet Interventions
AbbreviationInternet Interv.
ISSN (print)2214-7829

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