How to format your references using the Internet Interventions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Internet Interventions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Yamanaka, S., 2011. Genome-sequencing anniversary. Of mice and humans. Science 331, 873.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chou, I.-H., Chouard, T., 2008. Neuropsychiatric disease. Nature 455, 889.
A journal article with 3 authors
Popovych, O.V., Yanchuk, S., Tass, P.A., 2013. Self-organized noise resistance of oscillatory neural networks with spike timing-dependent plasticity. Sci. Rep. 3, 2926.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Joo, H.-Y., Zhai, L., Yang, C., Nie, S., Erdjument-Bromage, H., Tempst, P., Chang, C., Wang, H., 2007. Regulation of cell cycle progression and gene expression by H2A deubiquitination. Nature 449, 1068–1072.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Beecken, W.H., Beecken, C.A., 2017. Fraud Examination Casebook with Documents. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Neustein, A., Markowitz, J.A. (Eds.), 2013. Mobile Speech and Advanced Natural Language Solutions. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Rouan, D., 2015. Ablation, in: Gargaud, M., Irvine, W.M., Amils, R., Cleaves, H.J. (jim), Pinti, D.L., Quintanilla, J.C., Rouan, D., Spohn, T., Tirard, S., Viso, M. (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Astrobiology. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 28–28.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Internet Interventions.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2014. Advertising’s Gone To The Moon [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2003. Aviation Security: Federal Air Marshal Service Is Addressing Challenges of Its Expanded Mission and Workforce, but Additional Actions Needed (No. GAO-04-242). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wright, M.W., 2017. The Louisiana Teacher Assault Pay Statute: An Analysis of Court Decisions Interpreting the Statute and a Comparative Study of Teacher Assault Pay Statutes in Other States (Doctoral dissertation). University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S.K., 2004. World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Reporter Stabbed. New York Times A4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Yamanaka, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Chou and Chouard, 2008; Yamanaka, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chou and Chouard, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Joo et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternet Interventions
AbbreviationInternet Interv.
ISSN (print)2214-7829

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