How to format your references using the Internet Interventions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Internet Interventions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nottebohm, F., 2014. Peter Marler (1928-2014). Nature 512, 372.
A journal article with 2 authors
Whitson, J.A., Galinsky, A.D., 2008. Lacking control increases illusory pattern perception. Science 322, 115–117.
A journal article with 3 authors
Burghes, A.H., Vaessin, H.E., de La Chapelle, A., 2001. Genetics. The land between Mendelian and multifactorial inheritance. Science 293, 2213–2214.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Carrano, A.C., Liu, Z., Dillin, A., Hunter, T., 2009. A conserved ubiquitination pathway determines longevity in response to diet restriction. Nature 460, 396–399.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fernando, A., Worrall, S.T., Ekmekcioǧlu, E., 2013. 3DTV. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Kuflik, T., Berkovsky, S., Carmagnola, F., Heckmann, D., Krüger, A. (Eds.), 2009. Advances in Ubiquitous User Modelling: Revised Selected Papers, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Green, T.M., Fisher, B., 2011. The Personal Equation of Complex Individual Cognition during Visual Interface Interaction, in: Ebert, A., Dix, A., Gershon, N.D., Pohl, M. (Eds.), Human Aspects of Visualization: Second IFIP WG 13.7 Workshop on Human-Computer Interaction and Visualization, HCIV (INTERACT) 2009, Uppsala, Sweden, August 24, 2009, Revised Selected Papers, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 38–57.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Internet Interventions.

Blog post
Davis, J., 2015. Scientists Develop Enzyme That Can Convert Any Blood Into Universal Donor Type [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2008. Information Technology: Agriculture Needs to Strengthen Management Practices for Stabilizing and Modernizing Its Farm Program Delivery Systems (No. GAO-08-657). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Young, D.L., 2012. A phenomenological investigation of science center exhibition developers’ expertise development (Doctoral dissertation). University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Phillips, K.M., 2009. In Mexico, Outgunned and Underpaid. New York Times A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Nottebohm, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Nottebohm, 2014; Whitson and Galinsky, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Whitson and Galinsky, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Carrano et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternet Interventions
AbbreviationInternet Interv.
ISSN (print)2214-7829

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