How to format your references using the Internet Interventions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Internet Interventions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Winnacker, E.-L., 2013. A chance to drive forward Europe’s science. Nature 495, 283.
A journal article with 2 authors
Richmond, T.J., Davey, C.A., 2003. The structure of DNA in the nucleosome core. Nature 423, 145–150.
A journal article with 3 authors
Erez, E., Fass, D., Bibi, E., 2009. How intramembrane proteases bury hydrolytic reactions in the membrane. Nature 459, 371–378.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Allwood, D.A., Xiong, G., Faulkner, C.C., Atkinson, D., Petit, D., Cowburn, R.P., 2005. Magnetic domain-wall logic. Science 309, 1688–1692.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bonnet, P., 2013. Enterprise Data Governance. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Gruca, D.A., Czachórski, T., Kozielski, S. (Eds.), 2014. Man-Machine Interactions 3, Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Mazzola, G., Park, J., Thalmann, F., 2011. The General Method of Creativity, in: Park, J., Thalmann, F. (Eds.), Musical Creativity: Strategies and Tools in Composition and Improvisation, Computational Music Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 17–19.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Internet Interventions.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Cutting Emissions Through Biofuels Will Lead To Water Shortages – Study [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2007. Science and Technology: Information on Federal Programs and Interagency Efforts That Support Small Businesses Engaged in Manufacturing (No. GAO-07-714). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tercero, N., 2010. Characterization and application of morpholino monolayers in nucleic acid diagnostics (Doctoral dissertation). Columbia University, New York, NY.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S., 2001. October 7-13; Kursk Raised. New York Times 42.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Winnacker, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Richmond and Davey, 2003; Winnacker, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Richmond and Davey, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Allwood et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternet Interventions
AbbreviationInternet Interv.
ISSN (print)2214-7829

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