How to format your references using the Internet Interventions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Internet Interventions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Blatt, R., 2001. Delicate information. Nature 412, 773.
A journal article with 2 authors
Strahl, B.D., Allis, C.D., 2000. The language of covalent histone modifications. Nature 403, 41–45.
A journal article with 3 authors
Freimund, D.L., Aflatooni, K., Batelaan, H., 2001. Observation of the Kapitza-Dirac effect. Nature 413, 142–143.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Gómez-Gutiérrez, J., Peterson, W.T., De Robertis, A., Brodeur, R.D., 2003. Mass mortality of krill caused by parasitoid ciliates. Science 301, 339.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Le Chevalier, F., Lesselier, D., Staraj, R., 2011. Non-standard Antennas. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Sellmyer, D., Skomski, R. (Eds.), 2006. Advanced Magnetic Nanostructures. Springer US, Boston, MA.
A chapter in an edited book
Małachowski, B., 2016. Multiple Criteria Decision Support System for Tender Consortium Building Within the Cluster Organization, in: Różewski, P., Novikov, D., Bakhtadze, N., Zaikin, O. (Eds.), New Frontiers in Information and Production Systems Modelling and Analysis: Incentive Mechanisms, Competence Management, Knowledge-Based Production, Intelligent Systems Reference Library. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 105–117.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Internet Interventions.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Underground Map Reveals Hidden Secrets Of Stonehenge And Nearby Monstrous “Super Henge” [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1979. Citizenship and Residency Requirements for Government Student Loans (No. FGMSD-80-25). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sahebjame, M., 2012. Marriage: An authentic Iranian experience of the modern (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
DAVID KELLY; David Kelly is an editor of The Book Review, 1990. “I CAN POP I CAN BREAK I CAN SLIDE AND JERK.” New York Times 744.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Blatt, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Blatt, 2001; Strahl and Allis, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Strahl and Allis, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Gómez-Gutiérrez et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternet Interventions
AbbreviationInternet Interv.
ISSN (print)2214-7829

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