How to format your references using the Xenotransplantation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Xenotransplantation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cyranoski D. Marie Curie doesn’t live here, Japanese women say. Nature 2002; 419: 768.
A journal article with 2 authors
Leonhardt U, Tyc T. Broadband invisibility by non-Euclidean cloaking. Science 2009; 323: 110–112.
A journal article with 3 authors
Stager JC, Day JJ, Santini S. Comment on “Origin of the superflock of cichlid fishes from Lake Victoria, East Africa.” Science 2004; 304: 963; author reply 963.
A journal article with 6 or more authors
De Schrijver A, Verheyen K, Mertens J et al. Nitrogen saturation and net ecosystem production. Nature 2008; 451: E1; discussion E3-4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zwecher MJ. Retirement Portfolios Workbook. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2010.
An edited book
Pasupuleti VK, Demain AL, eds. Protein Hydrolysates in Biotechnology. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Fukuda Y. Monitoring Groundwater Variations Using Precise Gravimetry on Land and from Space. In: Taniguchi M, editor. Groundwater and Subsurface Environments: Human Impacts in Asian Coastal Cities. Tokyo: Springer Japan, 2011: 85–112.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Xenotransplantation.

Blog post
Andrew E. Just One Gene may Determine Brain Size in Fish. IFLScience 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Resources, Community, and Economic Development Information Systems Issue Area: Active Assignments. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1996.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Davis M. Opprobrious Identities: The Enslaving Effect of Black Respectability on Queer Black Men. 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Callahan M. Suspense. New York Times 2017 BR26.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1,2,3,4].

About the journal

Full journal titleXenotransplantation
ISSN (print)0908-665X
ISSN (online)1399-3089

Other styles