How to format your references using the Frontiers in Neurotrauma citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Neurotrauma. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Harry, E. J. (2014). Microbiology: A beacon for bacterial tubulin. Nature 516, 175–176.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jin, H.-J., and Kaplan, D. L. (2003). Mechanism of silk processing in insects and spiders. Nature 424, 1057–1061.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kuhlen, M., Madau, P., and Silk, J. (2009). Exploring dark matter with Milky Way substructure. Science 325, 970–973.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Benner, S. A., Caraco, M. D., Thomson, J. M., and Gaucher, E. A. (2002). Planetary biology--paleontological, geological, and molecular histories of life. Science 296, 864–868.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Permyakov, E. A., and Kretsinger, R. H. (2010). Calcium Binding Proteins. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Floudas, C. A., and Pardalos, P. M. eds. (2009). Encyclopedia of Optimization. Second Edition. Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Kovacic, P., and Somanathan, R. (2012). “Propoxur: A Novel Mechanism for Insecticidal Action and Toxicity,” in Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology Volume 218 Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology., ed. D. M. Whitacre (Boston, MA: Springer US), 141–150.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Neurotrauma.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. (2017). Robots And AI Could Soon Have Feelings, Hopes And Rights… We Must Prepare For The Reckoning. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1997). Space Shuttle: Upgrade Activities and Carryover Balances. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Obakhume, D. A. (2013). An aftercare program for female survivors of domestic abuse: A grant proposal.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Miranda, L.-M. (2017). Stephen Sondheim. New York Times, M2143.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Harry, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Jin and Kaplan, 2003; Harry, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jin and Kaplan, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Benner et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Neurotrauma
AbbreviationFront. Neurol.
ISSN (online)1664-2295
ScopeClinical Neurology

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