How to format your references using the Frontiers in Neurotrauma citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Neurotrauma. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Noonan, D. (2014). Language: Lost in translation. Nature 508, S4-5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kitagawa, N., and Ichihara, S. (2002). Hearing visual motion in depth. Nature 416, 172–174.
A journal article with 3 authors
McLaughlin, A. C., Sher, F., and Attfield, J. P. (2005). Negative lattice expansion from the superconductivity--antiferromagnetism crossover in ruthenium copper oxides. Nature 436, 829–832.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Mueth, D. M., Debregeas, G. F., Karczmar, G. S., Eng, P. J., Nagel, S. R., and Jaeger, H. M. (2000). Signatures of granular microstructure in dense shear flows. Nature 406, 385–389.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dujmović, D., Androić, B., and Lukačević, I. (2014). Composite Structures According to Eurocode 4. D-69451 Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH.
An edited book
Junger-Tas, J., and Decker, S. H. eds. (2006). International Handbook of Juvenile Justice. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Liu, J., and Wang, X. (2011). “Dynamic Sliding Mode Control,” in Advanced Sliding Mode Control for Mechanical Systems: Design, Analysis and MATLAB Simulation, ed. X. Wang (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 111–116.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Neurotrauma.

Blog post
Taub, B. (2016). Running May Boost Connectivity In Your Brain. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1996). Airline Deregulation: Barriers to Entry Continue to Limit Competition in Several Key Domestic Markets. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Solomon, R. B. (2017). Analysis of Emergency Responder Preparedness to Active Shooter Incidents in Santa Barbara, Ventura, Los Angeles, and Riverside Counties.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
MacFARQUHAR, N. (2015). Russian Movie Gets Applause in Hollywood but Scorn at Home. New York Times, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Noonan, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Kitagawa and Ichihara, 2002; Noonan, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kitagawa and Ichihara, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Mueth et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Neurotrauma
AbbreviationFront. Neurol.
ISSN (online)1664-2295
ScopeClinical Neurology

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