How to format your references using the Frontiers in Neurotrauma citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Neurotrauma. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Larson, S. (2012). Anthropology. Did australopiths climb trees? Science 338, 478–479.
A journal article with 2 authors
Araque, A., and Navarrete, M. (2011). Development. Electrically driven insulation in the central nervous system. Science 333, 1587–1588.
A journal article with 3 authors
Friedland, J. C., Lee, M. H., and Boettiger, D. (2009). Mechanically activated integrin switch controls alpha5beta1 function. Science 323, 642–644.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Devlin, R. H., Biagi, C. A., Yesaki, T. Y., Smailus, D. E., and Byatt, J. C. (2001). Growth of domesticated transgenic fish. Nature 409, 781–782.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Venkateshan, S. P. (2015). Mechanical Measurements. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Antony, P. J. ed. (2013). Segregation Hurts: Voices of Youth with Disabilities and Their Families in India. Rotterdam: SensePublishers.
A chapter in an edited book
Chen, M. (2015). “Taiwan–India Relations Under the Shadow of a Rising China,” in India and China in the Emerging Dynamics of East Asia, eds. G. V. C. Naidu, M. Chen, and R. Narayanan (New Delhi: Springer India), 43–58.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Neurotrauma.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2015). According To NASA, There’s A 99.9% Probability Of A Significant Earthquake Hitting Los Angeles By 2018. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1985). Opportunities and Constraints for Expanding Use of Research Facilities at the National Bureau of Standards. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lamanna, S. G. (2012). Colombian Spanish in North Carolina: The role of language and dialect contact in the formation of a new variety of U.S. Spanish.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Santora, M. (2017). Mounting Subway Delays Cost Riders Millions Every Year, Report Finds. New York Times, A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Larson, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Araque and Navarrete, 2011; Larson, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Araque and Navarrete, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Devlin et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Neurotrauma
AbbreviationFront. Neurol.
ISSN (online)1664-2295
ScopeClinical Neurology

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