How to format your references using the Frontiers in Neurotrauma citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Neurotrauma. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zaratiegui, M. (2015). Molecular biology: RNA interference hangs by a thread. Nature 520, 162–164.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pahlevan, K., and Morbidelli, A. (2015). Collisionless encounters and the origin of the lunar inclination. Nature 527, 492–494.
A journal article with 3 authors
Srisonphan, S., Kim, M., and Kim, H. K. (2014). Space charge neutralization by electron-transparent suspended graphene. Sci. Rep. 4, 3764.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Myers, N., Mittermeier, R. A., Mittermeier, C. G., da Fonseca, G. A., and Kent, J. (2000). Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature 403, 853–858.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
DiMaio, M. S., Fox, J. E., and Mahoney, M. J. (2010). Prenatal Diagnosis: Cases & Clinical Challenges. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Scheidenberger, C., and Pfützner, M. eds. (2014). The Euroschool on Exotic Beams, Vol. IV. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Prusky, D., Alkan, N., Miyara, I., Barad, S., Davidzon, M., Kobiler, I., et al. (2010). “Mechanisms Modulating Postharvest Pathogen Colonization of Decaying Fruits,” in Postharvest Pathology, eds. D. Prusky and M. L. Gullino (Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands), 43–55.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Neurotrauma.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). Herpes Virus Could Treat Skin Cancer. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1977). Reevaluation Needed of Educational Assistance for Institutionalized Neglected or Delinquent Children. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Klochko, K. (2009). An empirical re-evaluation of the boron isotope/pH proxy in marine carbonates.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg, B. (2017). Engaged Players Are on Same Side, Even in Singles. New York Times, SP5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Zaratiegui, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Pahlevan and Morbidelli, 2015; Zaratiegui, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pahlevan and Morbidelli, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Myers et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Neurotrauma
AbbreviationFront. Neurol.
ISSN (online)1664-2295
ScopeClinical Neurology

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