How to format your references using the Frontiers in Neurotrauma citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Neurotrauma. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chang, H. Y. (2009). Anatomic demarcation of cells: genes to patterns. Science 326, 1206–1207.
A journal article with 2 authors
Korf, H.-W., and Wicht, H. (2004). The public cadaver. Nature 428, 805.
A journal article with 3 authors
Qin, Z., Pugno, N. M., and Buehler, M. J. (2014). Mechanics of fragmentation of crocodile skin and other thin films. Sci. Rep. 4, 4966.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Islam, F. S., Gault, A. G., Boothman, C., Polya, D. A., Charnock, J. M., Chatterjee, D., et al. (2004). Role of metal-reducing bacteria in arsenic release from Bengal delta sediments. Nature 430, 68–71.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Li, W. (2004). Risk Assessment of Power Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Dimirovski, G. M. ed. (2016). Complex Systems: Relationships between Control, Communications and Computing. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Russell, C. T. (2007). “The coupling of the solar wind to the Earth’s magnetosphere,” in Space Weather- Physics and Effects Springer Praxis Books., ed. I. A. Daglis (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 103–130.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Neurotrauma.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2014). What Can Rats Wearing Jackets Tell Us About Men Who Love Lingerie? IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1992). Quantitative Data Analysis: An Introduction. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Baumgarten, D. K. (2013). An Examination of the Relationship between Collegiate Student-Athlete’s Leadership Role in the Athletic Setting and Their Academic Success.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Nir, S. M. (2016). A Gasoline Desert Expands on an Island of Many Cars. New York Times, A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Chang, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Korf and Wicht, 2004; Chang, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Korf and Wicht, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Islam et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Neurotrauma
AbbreviationFront. Neurol.
ISSN (online)1664-2295
ScopeClinical Neurology

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