How to format your references using the World Wide Web citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for World Wide Web. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Meyer, M.N.: Misjudgements will drive social trials underground. Nature. 511, 265 (2014)
A journal article with 2 authors
Castro, J.M., Dingwell, D.B.: Rapid ascent of rhyolitic magma at Chaitén volcano, Chile. Nature. 461, 780–783 (2009)
A journal article with 3 authors
Song, B.-S., Noda, S., Asano, T.: Photonic devices based on in-plane hetero photonic crystals. Science. 300, 1537 (2003)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Benazzi, S., Douka, K., Fornai, C., Bauer, C.C., Kullmer, O., Svoboda, J., Pap, I., Mallegni, F., Bayle, P., Coquerelle, M., Condemi, S., Ronchitelli, A., Harvati, K., Weber, G.W.: Early dispersal of modern humans in Europe and implications for Neanderthal behaviour. Nature. 479, 525–528 (2011)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Korst, J., Pronk, V.: Multimedia Storage and Retrieval. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK (2006)
An edited book
Kim, T.-H., Stoica, A., Chang, R.-S. eds: Security-Enriched Urban Computing and Smart Grid: First International Conference, SUComS 2010, Daejeon, Korea, September 15-17, 2010. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2010)
A chapter in an edited book
Guerraoui, R., Ruppert, E.: Linearizability Is Not Always a Safety Property. In: Noubir, G. and Raynal, M. (eds.) Networked Systems: Second International Conference, NETYS 2014, Marrakech, Morocco, May 15-17, 2014. Revised Selected Papers. pp. 57–69. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2014)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for World Wide Web.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: New Wind Turbine That Looks Like A Tree Is Coming To Paris,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Impacts of Closing Meigs Field Airport. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1996)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
An, D.: Improved Flotation of Bastnaesite and Chalcopyrite, (2017)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schmidt, M.S.: Dismayed by Trump, Head of Drug Enforcement Administration Will Leave, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleWorld Wide Web
AbbreviationWorld Wide Web
ISSN (print)1386-145X
ISSN (online)1573-1413
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications
Hardware and Architecture

Other styles