How to format your references using the Nano Convergence citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nano Convergence. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. M. Horvat, Science 334, 1066 (2011).
A journal article with 2 authors
1. A. Fernández and M. Lynch, Nature 474, 502 (2011).
A journal article with 3 authors
1. J. C. Friedland, M. H. Lee, and D. Boettiger, Science 323, 642 (2009).
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1. S. Saxena, R. P. Chaudhary, A. Singh, S. Awasthi, and S. Shukla, Sci. Rep. 4, 5586 (2014).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. B. Reason, L. Løvlie, and M. Brand Flu, Service Design for Business (John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ, 2015).
An edited book
1. H. Kubátová, C. Hochberger, M. Daněk, and B. Sick, editors , Architecture of Computing Systems – ARCS 2013: 26th International Conference, Prague, Czech Republic, February 19-22, 2013. Proceedings (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013).
A chapter in an edited book
1. T. Vasileva-Stojanovska and V. Trajkovik, in ICT Innovations 2013: ICT Innovations and Education, edited by V. Trajkovik and M. Anastas (Springer International Publishing, Heidelberg, 2014), pp. 45–55.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nano Convergence.

Blog post
1. E. Andrew, IFLScience (2014).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office, Telecommunications: Additional Coordination and Performance Measurement Needed for High-Speed Internet Access Programs on Tribal Lands (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2016).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. L. L. Karas, Information Systems and Technology Leaders in Merger and Acquisition Integrations, Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. G. Vecsey, New York Times B15 (2010).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNano Convergence
AbbreviationNano Converg.
ISSN (online)2196-5404

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