How to format your references using the World Psychiatry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for World Psychiatry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Harley CDG. Climate change, keystone predation, and biodiversity loss. Science. 2011;334(6059):1124-1127.
A journal article with 2 authors
Allen D, Westerblad H. Physiology. Lactic acid--the latest performance-enhancing drug. Science. 2004;305(5687):1112-1113.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nishida K, Montagner JP, Kawakatsu H. Global surface wave tomography using seismic hum. Science. 2009;326(5949):112.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Boehmerle W, Huehnchen P, Peruzzaro S, Balkaya M, Endres M. Electrophysiological, behavioral and histological characterization of paclitaxel, cisplatin, vincristine and bortezomib-induced neuropathy in C57Bl/6 mice. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6370.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gonzalez R, Qi F, Huang B. Process Control System Fault Diagnosis: A Bayesian Approach. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2016.
An edited book
Chaudhuri KR. Handbook of Non-Motor Symptoms in Parkinson’s Disease. (Martinez-Martin P, Odin P, Antonini A, eds.). Springer Healthcare UK; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Kelly PF. Class, Migration, and Identity in a Philippine Village. In: Plüss C, Chan KB, eds. Living Intersections: Transnational Migrant Identifications in Asia. Springer Netherlands; 2012:53-70.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for World Psychiatry.

Blog post
Andrews R. This Algorithm Is Better Than You At Picking Out A Lie Online. IFLScience. Published July 6, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Airline Competition: Industry Operating and Marketing Practices Limit Market Entry. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chirwa KU. Encumbered Existence: A Three Movement Work for Jazz Orchestra. Doctoral dissertation. University of Louisiana; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Steel E. Murdoch Son’s Rebuke of Trump May Signal a Shift. New York Times. August 19, 2017:A12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleWorld Psychiatry
AbbreviationWorld Psychiatry
ISSN (print)1723-8617
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health
Phychiatric Mental Health

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