How to format your references using the Frontiers in Neuroscience citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Neuroscience. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kramer, A. (2015). Circadian rhythms. When the circadian clock becomes blind. Science 347, 476–477.
A journal article with 2 authors
Misra, S., and Froelich, P. N. (2012). Lithium isotope history of Cenozoic seawater: changes in silicate weathering and reverse weathering. Science 335, 818–823.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lyons, T. W., Reinhard, C. T., and Planavsky, N. J. (2014). The rise of oxygen in Earth’s early ocean and atmosphere. Nature 506, 307–315.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Pereira, J. P., Kelly, L. M., Xu, Y., and Cyster, J. G. (2009). EBI2 mediates B cell segregation between the outer and centre follicle. Nature 460, 1122–1126.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Balakrishnan, N., and Koutras, M. V. (2001). Runs and Scans with Applications: Balakrishnan/Runs. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Ganguly, S., and Krishnamurti, R. eds. (2015). Algorithms and Discrete Applied Mathematics: First International Conference, CALDAM 2015, Kanpur, India, February 8-10, 2015. Proceedings. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Hansen, A., Hees, F., and Richert, A. (2014). “Kreativität mit System – Innovationsmanagement strategisch umsetzen,” in Automation, Communication and Cybernetics in Science and Engineering 2013/2014, eds. S. Jeschke, I. Isenhardt, F. Hees, and K. Henning (Cham: Springer International Publishing), 45–50.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Neuroscience.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). Conservationists Plan To Airlift 100 Rhinos To Save Them From Poaching. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1978). H.R. 13343, a Bill To Establish a Department of Education, and for Other Purposes. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kwon, Y. (2009). Extreme value estimators: Their long memory feature and forecasting performances in the U.S. stock indexes.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, K. (2010). Licks of the Tropics. New York Times, NJ7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kramer, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Misra and Froelich, 2012; Kramer, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Misra and Froelich, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Pereira et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Neuroscience
AbbreviationFront. Neurosci.
ISSN (online)1662-453X
ScopeGeneral Neuroscience

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