How to format your references using the Perspectives in Ecology and Conservation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Perspectives in Ecology and Conservation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Attaran, A., 2004. Where did it all go wrong? Nature 430, 932–933.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nowak, M.A., Sigmund, K., 2004. Evolutionary dynamics of biological games. Science 303, 793–799.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pool, J.A., Lobkovsky, E., Chirik, P.J., 2004. Hydrogenation and cleavage of dinitrogen to ammonia with a zirconium complex. Nature 427, 527–530.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Liang, L., Zhang, J., Zhou, Y., Xie, J., Zhang, X., Guan, M., Pan, B., Xie, Y., 2013. High-performance flexible electrochromic device based on facile semiconductor-to-metal transition realized by WO3·2H2O ultrathin nanosheets. Sci. Rep. 3, 1936.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wolf, K.H., Barnes, R., 2010. VoIP Emergency Calling. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Masoudi-Nejad, A., 2013. Next Generation Sequencing and Sequence Assembly: Methodologies and Algorithms, SpringerBriefs in Systems Biology. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Gary, D.E., Hurford, G.J., 2005. Radio Spectral Diagnostics, in: Gary, D.E., Keller, C.U. (Eds.), Solar and Space Weather Radiophysics: Current Status and Future Developments. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 71–87.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Perspectives in Ecology and Conservation.

Blog post
Evans, K., 2017. NASA Releases Incredible Images To Show How Earth Has Changed In Just 30 Years [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2008. Aviation and the Environment: Initial Voluntary Airport Low Emissions Program Projects Reduce Emissions, and FAA Plans to Assess the Program’s Overall Performance as Participation Increases (No. GAO-09-37). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Berkowitz, A.E., 2015. Finding a Place for “Cacega Ayuwipi” within the Structure of American Indian Music and Dance Traditions (Doctoral dissertation). Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, B., 2016. On the Stage, Aim for Special, but Not for Safe. New York Times C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Attaran, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Attaran, 2004; Nowak and Sigmund, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Nowak and Sigmund, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Liang et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titlePerspectives in Ecology and Conservation
AbbreviationPerspect. Ecol. Conserv.
ISSN (print)2530-0644

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