How to format your references using the Perspectives in Ecology and Conservation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Perspectives in Ecology and Conservation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Scharer, K., 2010. Geophysics. Changing views of the San Andreas Fault. Science 327, 1089–1090.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tulaczyk, S., Hossainzadeh, S., 2011. Geochemistry. Antarctica’s deep frozen “lakes.” Science 331, 1524–1525.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hoffman, B.D., Grashoff, C., Schwartz, M.A., 2011. Dynamic molecular processes mediate cellular mechanotransduction. Nature 475, 316–323.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Martinez, E., Antoine, D., D’Ortenzio, F., Gentili, B., 2009. Climate-driven basin-scale decadal oscillations of oceanic phytoplankton. Science 326, 1253–1256.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Billington, D.P., 2013. Der Turm und die Brücke. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH, D-69451 Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Lowry, S.F., Ciocca, R.G., Rettie, C.S., Vodarsik, M. (Eds.), 2005. Learning Surgery: The Surgery Clerkship Manual. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Kadel, R., Kessler, C., Vogel, L., 2009. Zero Footprint – A Viable Concept for Climate-Friendly Tourism in Africa?, in: Conrady, R., Buck, M. (Eds.), Trends and Issues in Global Tourism 2009. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 65–76.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Perspectives in Ecology and Conservation.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2013. Supernova Remnant Illuminated by Massive Shock Wave [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2002. Highway Infrastructure: Preliminary Information on the Timely Completion of Highway Construction Projects (No. GAO-02-1067T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Paik, Y., 2012. Redefining multidisciplinary teams: An institutional approach (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Casselman, B., 2017. The Start-Up Slump Is a Drag on the Economy. Maybe Big Business Is to Blame. New York Times B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Scharer, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Scharer, 2010; Tulaczyk and Hossainzadeh, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tulaczyk and Hossainzadeh, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Martinez et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titlePerspectives in Ecology and Conservation
AbbreviationPerspect. Ecol. Conserv.
ISSN (print)2530-0644

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