How to format your references using the Perspectives in Ecology and Conservation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Perspectives in Ecology and Conservation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Keller, R., 2002. Shaping the vertebrate body plan by polarized embryonic cell movements. Science 298, 1950–1954.
A journal article with 2 authors
Shepherd, A., Wingham, D., 2007. Recent sea-level contributions of the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets. Science 315, 1529–1532.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mathew-Fenn, R.S., Das, R., Harbury, P.A.B., 2008. Remeasuring the double helix. Science 322, 446–449.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Selman, C., Lingard, S., Gems, D., Partridge, L., Withers, D.J., 2008. Comment on “Brain IRS2 signaling coordinates life span and nutrient homeostasis.” Science 320, 1012; author reply 1012.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Eisner, H., 2005. Managing Complex Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Fogarty, T.J., White, R.A. (Eds.), 2010. Peripheral Endovascular Interventions. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Prasek, D., 2015. EBRD Environmental and Social Governance Standards and Their Impact on the Market, in: Wendt, K. (Ed.), Responsible Investment Banking: Risk Management Frameworks, Sustainable Financial Innovation and Softlaw Standards, CSR, Sustainability, Ethics & Governance. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 71–79.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Perspectives in Ecology and Conservation.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. The Horrifying Reason That Your Eyes Go Red In The Pool [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1996. Intellectual Property: Enhancements Needed in Computing and Reporting Patent Examination Statistics (No. RCED-96-190). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stewart, D.A., 2013. Principals’ post-observation feedback and its influence on teacher professional growth at two Southern California Catholic high schools (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Flegenheimer, M., Fitzsimmons, E.G., 2015. A Street Fight Between Uber and City Hall. New York Times A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Keller, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Keller, 2002; Shepherd and Wingham, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Shepherd and Wingham, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Selman et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titlePerspectives in Ecology and Conservation
AbbreviationPerspect. Ecol. Conserv.
ISSN (print)2530-0644

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