How to format your references using the Perspectives in Ecology and Conservation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Perspectives in Ecology and Conservation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hyatt, L.A., 2012. IBI* series winner. Personal plants: making botany meaningful by experimentation. Science 337, 1620–1621.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sutton, P.J., Kusmartsev, F.V., 2013. Gravitational vortices and clump formation in Saturn’s F ring during an encounter with Prometheus. Sci. Rep. 3, 1276.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang, A., Kurdistani, S.K., Grunstein, M., 2002. Requirement of Hos2 histone deacetylase for gene activity in yeast. Science 298, 1412–1414.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Holtzendorff, J., Hung, D., Brende, P., Reisenauer, A., Viollier, P.H., McAdams, H.H., Shapiro, L., 2004. Oscillating global regulators control the genetic circuit driving a bacterial cell cycle. Science 304, 983–987.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Simon, L., 2013. Control of Biological and Drug-Delivery Systems for Chemical, Biomedical, and Pharmaceutical Engineering. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Xie, J., Chen, Z., Douglas, C.C., Zhang, W., Chen, Y. (Eds.), 2016. High Performance Computing and Applications: Third International Conference, HPCA 2015, Shanghai, China, July 26-30, 2015, Revised Selected Papers, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Varoto, P.S., Mineto, A.T., 2014. Nonlinear Dynamic Behavior of Cantilever Piezoelectric Energy Harvesters: Numerical and Experimental Investigation, in: Wicks, A. (Ed.), Structural Health Monitoring, Volume 5: Proceedings of the 32nd IMAC, A Conference and Exposition on Structural Dynamics, 2014, Conference Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Mechanics Series. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 29–40.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Perspectives in Ecology and Conservation.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2015. Magnetic Cues Help Sea Turtles Find Their Home Beach [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2000. Laboratory Research: State of Tennessee Exempts DOE’s Spallation Neutron Source Project From Sales and Use Taxes (No. RCED-00-99R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Amanoua, K.P., 2014. Langue et identité dans les milieux populaires québécois et antillais (Doctoral dissertation). University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S.K., 2002. World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Archbishop Appeals To Rights Groups. New York Times A9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hyatt, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Hyatt, 2012; Sutton and Kusmartsev, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sutton and Kusmartsev, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Holtzendorff et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titlePerspectives in Ecology and Conservation
AbbreviationPerspect. Ecol. Conserv.
ISSN (print)2530-0644

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