How to format your references using the Perspectives in Ecology and Conservation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Perspectives in Ecology and Conservation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stevenson, D.J., 2001. Planetary science. Jupiter and its moons. Science 294, 71–72.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jakob, M., Hilaire, J., 2015. Climate science: Unburnable fossil-fuel reserves. Nature 517, 150–152.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kasen, D., Röpke, F.K., Woosley, S.E., 2009. The diversity of type Ia supernovae from broken symmetries. Nature 460, 869–872.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Tanovic, A., Samel, S.A., Essen, L.-O., Marahiel, M.A., 2008. Crystal structure of the termination module of a nonribosomal peptide synthetase. Science 321, 659–663.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dickson, E.F.G., 2012. Personal Protective Equipment for Chemical, Biological, and Radiological Hazards. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Kennedy, L.W., 2014. Translational Criminology and Counterterrorism: Global Threats and Local Responses, SpringerBriefs in Criminology. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Kryszkiewicz, M., Lasek, P., 2008. FUN: Fast Discovery of Minimal Sets of Attributes Functionally Determining a Decision Attribute, in: Peters, J.F., Skowron, A., Rybiński, H. (Eds.), Transactions on Rough Sets IX, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 76–95.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Perspectives in Ecology and Conservation.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2014. Earth’s Electromagnetic Field Is Weakening [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2013. District of Columbia Opportunity Scholarship Program: Actions Needed to Address Weaknesses in Administration and Oversight (No. GAO-13-805). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chappel, A.M., 2012. A Longitudinal Investigation of Stress, Complete Mental Health, and Social Support among High School Students (Doctoral dissertation). University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Oestreich, J.R., 2016. A Zeffirelli Production, Excesses and All. New York Times C5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Stevenson, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Jakob and Hilaire, 2015; Stevenson, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jakob and Hilaire, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Tanovic et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titlePerspectives in Ecology and Conservation
AbbreviationPerspect. Ecol. Conserv.
ISSN (print)2530-0644

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