How to format your references using the Perspectives in Ecology and Conservation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Perspectives in Ecology and Conservation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hynes, R.O., 2009. The extracellular matrix: not just pretty fibrils. Science 326, 1216–1219.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bensinger, S.J., Tontonoz, P., 2008. Integration of metabolism and inflammation by lipid-activated nuclear receptors. Nature 454, 470–477.
A journal article with 3 authors
Guilderson, T.P., Reimer, P.J., Brown, T.A., 2005. Geoscience. The boon and bane of radiocarbon dating. Science 307, 362–364.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Verma, R., Aravind, L., Oania, R., McDonald, W.H., Yates, J.R., 3rd, Koonin, E.V., Deshaies, R.J., 2002. Role of Rpn11 metalloprotease in deubiquitination and degradation by the 26S proteasome. Science 298, 611–615.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Glasgow, L.A., 2014. Applied Mathematics for Science and Engineering. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Martínez-Avendaño, R.A., 2007. An Introduction to Operators on the Hardy-Hilbert Space, Graduate Texts in Mathematics. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Claxton, N.S., Ross, S.T., 2013. The Essentials of Light Microscopy, in: Gersen, S.L., Keagle, M.B. (Eds.), The Principles of Clinical Cytogenetics. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 67–76.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Perspectives in Ecology and Conservation.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J., 2015. Metallic Glass Alloys Could Be Stronger Than Steel But As Malleable As Putty [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2013. Aviation: Status of DOT’s Actions to Address the Future of Aviation Advisory Committee’s Recommendations (No. GAO-13-657). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dusso, A.P., 2010. The psychology of institutional development: How parties’ willingness to accept risk affects the districts they draw and the seats they win (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shpigel, B., 2017. Its Sports Fandom Evolving, Atlanta Chases Football Glory. New York Times A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hynes, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Bensinger and Tontonoz, 2008; Hynes, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bensinger and Tontonoz, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Verma et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titlePerspectives in Ecology and Conservation
AbbreviationPerspect. Ecol. Conserv.
ISSN (print)2530-0644

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