How to format your references using the World Neurosurgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for World Neurosurgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Perk J. Perspective: The power of disease prevention. Nature. 2013;493(7434):S6.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
LaFever L, Drummond-Barbosa D. Direct control of germline stem cell division and cyst growth by neural insulin in Drosophila. Science. 2005;309(5737):1071-1073.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Cai L, Dalal CK, Elowitz MB. Frequency-modulated nuclear localization bursts coordinate gene regulation. Nature. 2008;455(7212):485-490.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Steklov M, Pandolfi S, Baietti MF, et al. Mutations in LZTR1 drive human disease by dysregulating RAS ubiquitination. Science. Published online November 15, 2018.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Cochetti R. Mobile Satellite Communications Handbook. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
1.
Torre A. Regional Development in Rural Areas: Analytical Tools and Public Policies. (Wallet F, ed.). Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Durand-Guerrier V, Kazima M, Libbrecht P, et al. Challenges and Opportunities for Second Language Learners in Undergraduate Mathematics. In: Barwell R, Clarkson P, Halai A, et al., eds. Mathematics Education and Language Diversity: The 21st ICMI Study. New ICMI Study Series. Springer International Publishing; 2016:85-101.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for World Neurosurgery.

Blog post
1.
Hale T. Watch What Happens If You Put A Diamond In A Hydraulic Press. IFLScience. Published May 18, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018. https://www.iflscience.com/physics/hydraulic-press-channel-takes-one-natures-hardest-materials/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Federal Aviation Administration: Cost Allocation Practices and Cost Recovery Proposal Compared with Selected International Practices. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2007.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Mueller K. Biases in the Selection Process Against Applicants with Tattoos. Published online 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Feeney K. Healthy but Not Preachy. New York Times. October 21, 2007:14NJ12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleWorld Neurosurgery
AbbreviationWorld Neurosurg.
ISSN (print)1878-8750
ScopeClinical Neurology
Surgery

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