How to format your references using the World Neurosurgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for World Neurosurgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
McLean AR. Epidemiology. Coming to an airport near you. Science. 2013;342(6164):1330-1331.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Camasso NM, Sanford MS. Design, synthesis, and carbon-heteroatom coupling reactions of organometallic nickel(IV) complexes. Science. 2015;347(6227):1218-1220.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Lou X, Scheuss V, Schneggenburger R. Allosteric modulation of the presynaptic Ca2+ sensor for vesicle fusion. Nature. 2005;435(7041):497-501.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Tellides G, Tereb DA, Kirkiles-Smith NC, et al. Interferon-gamma elicits arteriosclerosis in the absence of leukocytes. Nature. 2000;403(6766):207-211.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Mack I. Energy Trading and Risk Management. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
1.
Liu Q. Novel Optical Technologies for Nanofabrication. (Duan X, Peng C, eds.). Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Dawson PA. Role of the Intestinal Bile Acid Transporters in Bile Acid and Drug Disposition. In: Fromm MF, Kim RB, eds. Drug Transporters. Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology. Springer; 2011:169-203.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for World Neurosurgery.

Blog post
1.
Taub B. Pre-Aztec Skull With Stone-Encrusted Teeth Discovered At Ancient City In Mexico. IFLScience.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Appropriated Funds. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1981.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Barnett J. Understanding gender differences in teachers’ level of insight as it relates to ADHD. Published online 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Krauss C. Breakdown at BP Refinery Strains Midwest Gas Prices. New York Times. August 14, 2015:B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleWorld Neurosurgery
AbbreviationWorld Neurosurg.
ISSN (print)1878-8750
ScopeClinical Neurology
Surgery

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