How to format your references using the World Neurosurgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for World Neurosurgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:


PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Klein RG. Paleoanthropology. Whither the Neanderthals? Science. 2003;299(5612):1525-1527.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Kim E, Chan MHW. Probable observation of a supersolid helium phase. Nature. 2004;427(6971):225-227.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Micol-Ponce R, Aguilera V, Ponce MR. A genetic screen for suppressors of a hypomorphic allele of Arabidopsis ARGONAUTE1. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5533.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Raymond PA, Oh N-H, Turner RE, Broussard W. Anthropogenically enhanced fluxes of water and carbon from the Mississippi River. Nature. 2008;451(7177):449-452.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Knowles R. 150 Contractual Problems and Their Solutions. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd; 2008.
An edited book
1.
Pobil AP del, Chinellato E, Martinez-Martin E, Hallam J, Cervera E, Morales A, eds. From Animals to Animats 13: 13th International Conference on Simulation of Adaptive Behavior, SAB 2014, Castellón, Spain, July 22-25, 2014. Proceedings. Vol 8575. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Recker J, Safrudin N, Rosemann M. How Novices Model Business Processes. In: Hull R, Mendling J, Tai S, eds. Business Process Management: 8th International Conference, BPM 2010, Hoboken, NJ, USA, September 13-16, 2010. Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010:29-44.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for World Neurosurgery.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E. Scientists Finally Unlock The Secrets Behind Superconductivity. IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/chemistry/scientists-finally-unlock-secrets-behind-superconductivity/. Published June 17, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Evaluation of Army’s Mobile Subscriber Equipment Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1985.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Tarar WA. A New Finite Element Procedure for Fatigue Life Predictionand High Strain Rate Assessment of Cold Worked Advanced High Strength Steel. 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Wagner J. Walker Takes One-Year Deal, but Cespedes Tells Mets No. New York Times. November 14, 2016:B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleWorld Neurosurgery
AbbreviationWorld Neurosurg.
ISSN (print)1878-8750
ScopeClinical Neurology
Surgery

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