How to format your references using the World Neurosurgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for World Neurosurgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schilling G. PLANETARY SCIENCE: Imaging Spat Pits Amateur Against Pros. Science. 2000;288(5474):2110-2111.
A journal article with 2 authors
Voesenek LACJ, Pierik R. Plant science. Plant stress profiles. Science. 2008;320(5878):880-881.
A journal article with 3 authors
O’Connor J, Zheng X, Zhou Z. Zheng et al. reply. Nature. 2013;499(7457):E1-2.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Nam SW, Qian C, Kim SH, van Noort D, Chiam KH, Park S. C. elegans sensing of and entrainment along obstacles require different neurons at different body locations. Sci Rep. 2013;3:3247.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kitajima M. Memory and Action Selection in Human-Machine Interaction. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
Lukszo Z, Deconinck G, Weijnen MPC, eds. Securing Electricity Supply in the Cyber Age: Exploring the Risks of Information and Communication Technology in Tomorrow’s Electricity Infrastructure. Vol 15. Springer Netherlands; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Sugi M, Murakami H, Yoshimura J. Mechanism of the Indian Ocean Tropical Cyclone Frequency Changes due to Global Warming. In: Mohanty UC, Mohapatra M, Singh OP, Bandyopadhyay BK, Rathore LS, eds. Monitoring and Prediction of Tropical Cyclones in the Indian Ocean and Climate Change. Springer Netherlands; 2014:40-49.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for World Neurosurgery.

Blog post
Andrew E. Three-Parent Babies Possible ‘In Two Years’ According to UK Report. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Truck Safety: Share the Road Safely Pilot Initiative Showed Promise, but the Program’s Future Success Is Uncertain. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2006.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Young W. Diamagnetism of a Supersonic Rotating Magnetized Plasma. Doctoral dissertation. University of Maryland, College Park; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt) SK. World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Cooperation, Of Sorts, From Georgia. New York Times. September 7, 2002:A4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleWorld Neurosurgery
AbbreviationWorld Neurosurg.
ISSN (print)1878-8750
ScopeClinical Neurology

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