How to format your references using the The Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry Research (JPACR). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lauher, J. W. Science 2011, 333 (6041), 415–416.
A journal article with 2 authors
Welker, J., Giessibl, F. J. Science 2012, 336 (6080), 444–449.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yamashita, Y. M., Jones, D. L., Fuller, M. T. Science 2003, 301 (5639), 1547–1550.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Roger, T., David, J., Glauser, M. P., Calandra, T. Nature 2001, 414 (6866), 920–924.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gupta, K. M., Gupta, N. Advanced Electrical and Electronics Materials, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2015.
An edited book
Moemeka, E. Real World Windows 10 Development, Second Edition., Moemeka, E., Ed., Apress, Berkeley, CA, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Rathbone, M., Rathbone, B. In Inflammation and Gastrointestinal Cancers, Jankowski, J. A. Z., Ed., Recent Results in Cancer Research, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011, pp 83–97.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry Research.

Blog post
Andrews, R. What’s The Difference Between Male And Female Brains? (Accessed date Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Tax Systems Modernization: IRS Award to MITRE Corporation Violated the Competition in Contracting Act, IMTEC-92-28, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hufnagel, D. Search for the Cabibbo-Supressed D+ Meson Decays D+ → π+π 0 and D+ → K+ π0. Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 2005.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Nagourney, A., Berger, J. New York Times. August 16, 2010, p A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry Research
ISSN (print)2302-4690
ISSN (online)2541-0733

Other styles