How to format your references using the The Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry Research (JPACR). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kolber, A. Nature 2011, 476 (7360), 275–276.
A journal article with 2 authors
Denef, V. J., Banfield, J. F. Science 2012, 336 (6080), 462–466.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rosin-Arbesfeld, R., Townsley, F., Bienz, M. Nature 2000, 406 (6799), 1009–1012.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Mani, R. G., Smet, J. H., von Klitzing, K., Narayanamurti, V., Johnson, W. B., Umansky, V. Nature 2002, 420 (6916), 646–650.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Waine, C. Obesity and Weight Management in Primary Care, Blackwell Science Ltd, Oxford, UK, 2008.
An edited book
Genomics, Obesity and the Struggle over Responsibilities, Korthals, M., Ed., The International Library of Environmental, Agricultural and Food Ethics, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2011, Vol. 18.
A chapter in an edited book
Max, M. D., Johnson, A. H. In Exploration and Production of Oceanic Natural Gas Hydrate: Critical Factors for Commercialization, Johnson, A. H., Ed., Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016, pp 157–172.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry Research.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. Earth’s Third Van Allen Radiation Belt Made By A “Space Tsunami” (Accessed date Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Costs and Planned Use of Emergency Funds, AIMD-99-154, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chaisson, C. An Investigation of Lower Wilcox Group Coals in Portions of Avoyelles, Catahoula, Concordia, Grant, Lasalle, and Rapides Parishes, Louisiana. Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario, B. New York Times. April 14, 2017, p AR21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry Research
ISSN (print)2302-4690
ISSN (online)2541-0733

Other styles