How to format your references using the The Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry Research (JPACR). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Field, J. K. Nature 2014, 513 (7517), S7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Elowitz, M., Lim, W. A. Nature 2010, 468 (7326), 889–890.
A journal article with 3 authors
Griesinger, C. B., Richards, C. D., Ashmore, J. F. Nature 2005, 435 (7039), 212–215.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Li, C., Wu, X.-C., Rieppel, O., Wang, L.-T., Zhao, L.-J. Nature 2008, 456 (7221), 497–501.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stuart, B. Forensic Analytical Techniques: Stuart/Forensic Analytical Techniques, Analytical Techniques in the Sciences, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2012.
An edited book
Trends in Applied Intelligent Systems: 23rd International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Other Applications of Applied Intelligent Systems, IEA/AIE 2010, Cordoba, Spain, June 1-4, 2010, Proceedings, Part I, García-Pedrajas, N., Herrera, F., Fyfe, C., Benítez, J. M., Ali, M., Eds., Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010, Vol. 6096.
A chapter in an edited book
Taylor, A. S., Vincent, J. In Mobile World: Past, Present and Future, Hamill, L., Lasen, A., Diaper, D., Eds., Computer Supported Cooperative Work, Springer, London, 2005, pp 75–91.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry Research.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. Plants Use Quantum Mechanics To Make Photosynthesis More Efficient (Accessed date Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Joint Strike Fighter: Progress Made and Challenges Remain, GAO-07-360, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2007.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mitchell, S. F. Life-review therapy: A prevention program for the elderly who are experiencing life transitions. A grant proposal. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. New York Times. September 13, 2016, p B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry Research
ISSN (print)2302-4690
ISSN (online)2541-0733

Other styles