How to format your references using the The Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry Research (JPACR). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Crous, C. J. Nature 2014, 513 (7516), 7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ostfeld, R. S., Keesing, F. Science 2004, 306 (5701), 1488–1489.
A journal article with 3 authors
Miller, P. M., Gavrilets, S., Rice, W. R. Science 2006, 312 (5770), 73.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Treusch, S., Hamamichi, S., Goodman, J. L., Matlack, K. E. S., Chung, C. Y., Baru, V., Shulman, J. M., Parrado, A., Bevis, B. J., Valastyan, J. S., Han, H., Lindhagen-Persson, M., Reiman, E. M., Evans, D. A., Bennett, D. A., Olofsson, A., DeJager, P. L., Tanzi, R. E., Caldwell, K. A., Caldwell, G. A., Lindquist, S. Science 2011, 334 (6060), 1241–1245.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zheng, Y., Xu, X., Xu, Z., Wang, J., Cai, H. Metallic Biomaterials, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany, 2017.
An edited book
Post 9/11 and the State of Permanent Legal Emergency: Security and Human Rights in Countering Terrorism, Masferrer, A., Ed., Ius Gentium: Comparative Perspectives on Law and Justice, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2012, Vol. 14.
A chapter in an edited book
Steensma, A. B. In Atlas of Pelvic Floor Ultrasound, Hoyte, L. P. J., Steensma, A. B., Eds., Springer, London, 2008, pp 63–75.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry Research.

Blog post
Fang, J. Can You Get a Food Allergy From a Blood Transfusion? (Accessed date Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. GAO Guide to Project Planning and Management, 090882, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1978.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Aggarwal, E. South Asian women’s attitudes toward help-seeking behaviors. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. New York Times. May 31, 2006, p C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry Research
ISSN (print)2302-4690
ISSN (online)2541-0733

Other styles