How to format your references using the The Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry Research (JPACR). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bignami, G. F. Nature 2000, 404 (6775), 227.
A journal article with 2 authors
Balois, T., Ben Amar, M. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 3622.
A journal article with 3 authors
Román-Leshkov, Y., Chheda, J. N., Dumesic, J. A. Science 2006, 312 (5782), 1933–1937.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
He, Y., Nagashima, K., Kanai, M., Meng, G., Zhuge, F., Rahong, S., Li, X., Kawai, T., Yanagida, T. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 5943.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Basener, W. F. Topology and Its Applications, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2006.
An edited book
The Influence of Human Rights and Basic Rights in Private Law, Trstenjak, V., Weingerl, P., Eds., Ius Comparatum - Global Studies in Comparative Law, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016, Vol. 15.
A chapter in an edited book
Teichler, U., Arimoto, A., Cummings, W. K. In The Changing Academic Profession: Major Findings of a Comparative Survey, Arimoto, A., Cummings, W. K., Eds., Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2013, pp 75–116.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry Research.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. Comets Spurt Out Chemicals In Specific Ways (Accessed date Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Environmental Satellites: Launch Delayed; NOAA Faces Key Decisions on Timing of Future Satellites, GAO-16-143T, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2015.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Washington-Cobb, S. L. Exploring the Experiences of Former Alternative Education Participants: Case Studies. Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Marx, L. New York Times. June 22, 2014, p ST13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry Research
ISSN (print)2302-4690
ISSN (online)2541-0733

Other styles