How to format your references using the Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
May R. 2001. Risk and uncertainty. Nature. 411(6840):891.
A journal article with 2 authors
Vollmer D, Butt H-J. 2015. Materials science: Droplets leap into action. Nature. 527(7576):41–42.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sun L, Song K, Hase WL. 2002. A SN2 reaction that avoids its deep potential energy minimum. Science. 296(5569):875–878.
A journal article with 12 or more authors
Naugler WE, Sakurai T, Kim S, Maeda S, Kim K, Elsharkawy AM, Karin M. 2007. Gender disparity in liver cancer due to sex differences in MyD88-dependent IL-6 production. Science. 317(5834):121–124.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Allen M. 2015. Foundations of Forensic Document Analysis. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Carlberg C. 2014. Mechanisms of Gene Regulation. Molnár F, editor. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Jüttner M. 2007. Part-Based Strategies for Visual Categorisation and Object Recognition. In: Osaka N, Rentschler I, Biederman I, editors. Object Recognition, Attention, and Action. Tokyo: Springer Japan; p. 55–70.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering.

Blog post
Andrew E. 2014. Beer Waste Used To Make Bones. IFLScience [Internet]. [accessed 2018 Oct 30].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2002. Highway Infrastructure: Preliminary Information on the Timely Completion of Highway Construction Projects. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dolan DJ. 2017. Structural Evolution of Martin Crater Thaumasia Planum, Mars [Doctoral dissertation]. Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Peters ME, Barend S. 2017. Why Private Cash Improves Public Works. New York Times.:A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (May 2001).
This sentence cites two references (May 2001; Vollmer & Butt 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Vollmer & Butt 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Naugler et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleComputer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
AbbreviationComput. Methods Biomech. Biomed. Engin.
ISSN (print)1025-5842
ISSN (online)1476-8259
Computer Science Applications
Human-Computer Interaction
Biomedical Engineering
General Medicine

Other styles