How to format your references using the Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Connor CE. 2002. Neuroscience. Reconstructing a 3D world. Science. 298(5592):376–377.
A journal article with 2 authors
de Bono JS, Ashworth A. 2010. Translating cancer research into targeted therapeutics. Nature. 467(7315):543–549.
A journal article with 3 authors
Navrotsky A, Mazeina L, Majzlan J. 2008. Size-driven structural and thermodynamic complexity in iron oxides. Science. 319(5870):1635–1638.
A journal article with 12 or more authors
Sun T, Patoine C, Abu-Khalil A, Visvader J, Sum E, Cherry TJ, Orkin SH, Geschwind DH, Walsh CA. 2005. Early asymmetry of gene transcription in embryonic human left and right cerebral cortex. Science. 308(5729):1794–1798.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Duggan D. 2012. Enterprise Software Architecture and Design. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Liu Y. 2011. Location, Localization, and Localizability: Location-awareness Technology for Wireless Networks. Yang Z, editor. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Iltanen S. 2012. Cellular Automata in Urban Spatial Modelling. In: Heppenstall AJ, Crooks AT, See LM, Batty M, editors. Agent-Based Models of Geographical Systems. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; p. 69–84.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering.

Blog post
Andrew E. 2015. Wolves, Boar And Other Wildlife Defy Contamination To Make A Comeback At Chernobyl. IFLScience [Internet]. [accessed 2018 Oct 30].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2001. Telecommuting: Overview of Challenges Facing Federal Agencies. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Husted CL. 2008. Systematic differentiation between Dark and Light Leaders: Is a corporate criminal profile possible? [Doctoral dissertation]. Minneapolis, MN: Capella University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney K. 2009. Takeout That Moved On. New York Times.:NJ11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Connor 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Connor 2002; de Bono and Ashworth 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (de Bono and Ashworth 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Sun et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleComputer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
AbbreviationComput. Methods Biomech. Biomed. Engin.
ISSN (print)1025-5842
ISSN (online)1476-8259
Computer Science Applications
Human-Computer Interaction
Biomedical Engineering
General Medicine

Other styles