How to format your references using the Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smith R. 2000. An end to violence. Nature. 406(6796):567.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pacala S, Socolow R. 2004. Stabilization wedges: solving the climate problem for the next 50 years with current technologies. Science. 305(5686):968–972.
A journal article with 3 authors
O’Connor S, Ono R, Clarkson C. 2011. Pelagic fishing at 42,000 years before the present and the maritime skills of modern humans. Science. 334(6059):1117–1121.
A journal article with 12 or more authors
Liu T, Diemann E, Li H, Dress AWM, Müller A. 2003. Self-assembly in aqueous solution of wheel-shaped Mo154 oxide clusters into vesicles. Nature. 426(6962):59–62.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Harris J. 2013. The Utopian Globalists. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
An edited book
Cullis AG, Midgley PA, editors. 2008. Microscopy of Semiconducting Materials 2007. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Tobias ES. 2016. Genetic Counseling for Childhood Tumors and Inherited Cancer-Predisposing Syndromes. In: Carachi R, Grosfeld JL, editors. The Surgery of Childhood Tumors. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; p. 51–66.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering.

Blog post
Hale T. 2015. Why Was A Child’s “5+5+5=15” Answer Marked As Incorrect? IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1984. Many Proprietary Schools Do Not Comply With Department of Education’s Pell Grant Program Requirements. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tanag HB. 2017. Building bridges of hope after loss: A self-directed workbook for foster parents [Doctoral dissertation]. Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin J. 2016. After Negotiations With NBC, Billy Bush Is Officially Off ‘Today.’ New York Times.:A13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smith 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Smith 2000; Pacala and Socolow 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pacala and Socolow 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Liu et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleComputer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
AbbreviationComput. Methods Biomech. Biomed. Engin.
ISSN (print)1025-5842
ISSN (online)1476-8259
Computer Science Applications
Human-Computer Interaction
Biomedical Engineering
General Medicine

Other styles