How to format your references using the World Journal of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for World Journal of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kociak M. Microscopy: Quantum control of free electrons. Nature. 2015;521(7551):166-167.
A journal article with 2 authors
Druzd D, Scheiermann C. Immunology. Some monocytes got rhythm. Science. 2013;341(6153):1462-1464.
A journal article with 3 authors
Segawa Y, Yamashita M, Nozaki K. Boryllithium: isolation, characterization, and reactivity as a boryl anion. Science. 2006;314(5796):113-115.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Shepherd A, Wingham DJ, Mansley JA, Corr HF. Inland thinning of Pine Island Glacier, West Antarctica. Science. 2001;291(5505):862-864.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kato T, Handwerker CA, Bath J. Mitigating Tin Whisker Risks. John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2016.
An edited book
Duff A, Lepora NF, Mura A, Prescott TJ, Verschure PFMJ, eds. Biomimetic and Biohybrid Systems: Third International Conference, Living Machines 2014, Milan, Italy, July 30 – August 1, 2014. Proceedings. Vol 8608. Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Zoric J. Connecting Business Models with Service Platform Designs – Quantitative, Scenario-Based Framework. In: Hesselman C, Giannelli C, eds. Mobile Wireless Middleware, Operating Systems, and Applications - Workshops: Mobilware 2009 Workshops, Berlin, Germany, April 2009, Revised Selected Papers. Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering. Springer; 2009:33-44.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for World Journal of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery.

Blog post
Andrews R. These Sex Acts Are Being Banned From Pornography In The UK. IFLScience. Published November 30, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Responsibilities, Actions, and Coordination of Federal Agencies in International Telecommunications Services. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1977.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gowda V. Pollination Biology and Inter-Island Geographical Variation in the Mutualistic Heliconia (Heliconiaceae)-Hummingbird (Trochilidae) Interaction of the Eastern Caribbean Islands. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Candaele K. BackTalk; A Brother Finds Family Comfort in Turbulent Waters. New York Times. August 18, 2002:811.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleWorld Journal of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery
ISSN (print)2095-8811

Other styles