How to format your references using the World Journal of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for World Journal of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Robbins M. Policy: Fuelling politics. Nature. 2011;474(7352):S22-4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chen W-P, Yang Z. Earthquakes beneath the Himalayas and Tibet: evidence for strong lithospheric mantle. Science. 2004;304(5679):1949-1952.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ma J, Bai L, Wang MD. Transcription under torsion. Science. 2013;340(6140):1580-1583.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kim HJ, Oh SA, Brownfield L, et al. Control of plant germline proliferation by SCF(FBL17) degradation of cell cycle inhibitors. Nature. 2008;455(7216):1134-1137.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Audibert P. Mathematics for Informatics and Computer Science. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
Anastassiou GA. Intelligent Numerical Methods: Applications to Fractional Calculus. Vol 624. 1st ed. 2016. (Argyros IK, ed.). Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Daastøl AM. Friedrich List’s “Great Nations”: Mobilising Capital for Quality Labour. In: Backhaus J, ed. Great Nations at Peril. The European Heritage in Economics and the Social Sciences. Springer International Publishing; 2015:37-75.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for World Journal of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery.

Blog post
Hamilton K. A Hen Laid A Giant Egg With Something Pretty Strange Inside. IFLScience. Published April 23, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Computer Capacity: IRS Must Better Estimate Its Computer Resource Needs. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1986.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cox V. A Quantitative Analysis of the Yield Curve: Forecasting the Length and End of a Recession. Published online 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly C. A Builder of Broadway’s World, From ‘Chicago’ to ‘Spamalot.’ New York Times. March 9, 2008:WE6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleWorld Journal of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery
ISSN (print)2095-8811

Other styles