How to format your references using the BMC Anesthesiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Anesthesiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Hoag H. Coal-fired power plant to bury issue of emissions. Nature. 2003;422:7.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Weber TS, Deutsch C. Ocean nutrient ratios governed by plankton biogeography. Nature. 2010;467:550–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Costello MJ, May RM, Stork NE. Can we name Earth’s species before they go extinct? Science. 2013;339:413–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Weijers JWH, Schefuss E, Schouten S, Sinninghe Damsté JS. Coupled thermal and hydrological evolution of tropical Africa over the last deglaciation. Science. 2007;315:1701–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Cannon DL. CISA®. Indianapolis, Indiana: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
1. Flechtner F, Sneeuw N, Schuh W-D, editors. Observation of the System Earth from Space - CHAMP, GRACE, GOCE and future missions: GEOTECHNOLOGIEN Science Report No. 20. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Syed MN, Principe JC, Pardalos PM. Correntropy in Data Classification. In: Sorokin A, Murphey R, Thai MT, Pardalos PM, editors. Dynamics of Information Systems: Mathematical Foundations. New York, NY: Springer; 2012. p. 81–117.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Anesthesiology.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. The Most Distant Galaxy Has Been Discovered. IFLScience. 2014. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. GAO’s Need for an Interim Management Data System (MDS). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1979.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Chaisson C. An Investigation of Lower Wilcox Group Coals in Portions of Avoyelles, Catahoula, Concordia, Grant, Lasalle, and Rapides Parishes, Louisiana. Doctoral dissertation. University of Louisiana; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Marchese J. ‘I Just Love What I’m Doing.’ New York Times. 2016;:AR20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Anesthesiology
AbbreviationBMC Anesthesiol.
ISSN (online)1471-2253
ScopeAnesthesiology and Pain Medicine

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