How to format your references using the BMC Anesthesiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Anesthesiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Lawler A. Archaeology. Preserving history, one hill at a time. Science. 2011;334:1623.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Jan Y-N, Jan L. Retrospective: Seymour Benzer (1921-2007). Science. 2008;319:45.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Efremov RG, Baradaran R, Sazanov LA. The architecture of respiratory complex I. Nature. 2010;465:441–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Farrell SA, Webb NA, Barret D, Godet O, Rodrigues JM. An intermediate-mass black hole of over 500 solar masses in the galaxy ESO 243-49. Nature. 2009;460:73–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Griffin PM, Nembhard HB, DeFlitch CJ, Bastian ND, Kang H, Muñoz DA. Healthcare Systems Engineering. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2015.
An edited book
1. Nilius B, de Tombe P, Gudermann T, Jahn R, Lill R, Petersen OH, editors. Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology, Vol. 172. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Sobhani-Tehrani E, Khorasani K. Application to a Satellite’s Attitude Control Subsystem. In: Khorasani K, editor. Fault Diagnosis of Nonlinear Systems Using a Hybrid Approach. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2009. p. 99–217.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Anesthesiology.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Last Of Her Kind, This 100-Year-Old Turtle May Soon Be A Mom. IFLScience. 2015. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Secure Flight: Additional Actions Needed to Determine Program Effectiveness and Strengthen Privacy Oversight Mechanisms. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2014.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Visweswaran K. Face Recognition Technique for Blurred/Unclear Images. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Hubbard B. Militants and Refugees Are Bused Back to Syria. New York Times. 2017;:A5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Anesthesiology
AbbreviationBMC Anesthesiol.
ISSN (online)1471-2253
ScopeAnesthesiology and Pain Medicine

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