How to format your references using the BMC Anesthesiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Anesthesiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Frei H. Chemistry. Selective hydrocarbon oxidation in zeolites. Science. 2006;313:309–10.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Shaw RJ, Cantley LC. Ras, PI(3)K and mTOR signalling controls tumour cell growth. Nature. 2006;441:424–30.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Ninomiya H, Elinson RP, Winklbauer R. Antero-posterior tissue polarity links mesoderm convergent extension to axial patterning. Nature. 2004;430:364–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Bale R, Shirgaonkar AA, Neveln ID, Bhalla APS, MacIver MA, Patankar NA. Separability of drag and thrust in undulatory animals and machines. Sci Rep. 2014;4:7329.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Heitz E, Kreysa G. Grundlagen der Technischen Elektrochemie. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2005.
An edited book
1. Ahmad SI, editor. Diseases of DNA Repair. New York, NY: Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Borowitzka MA. Species and Strain Selection. In: Borowitzka MA, Moheimani NR, editors. Algae for Biofuels and Energy. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2013. p. 77–89.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Anesthesiology.

Blog post
1. Andrews R. Over 100 Nobel Laureates Condemn Greenpeace’s Opposition To GMOs. IFLScience. 2016. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Vehicle Safety Inspections: Improved DOT Communication Could Better Inform State Programs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2015.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Thomack A. Random Harmonic Polynomials. Doctoral dissertation. Florida Atlantic University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Greenhouse L. Court Veteran Remembers A Scary Start. New York Times. 2006;:A31.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Anesthesiology
AbbreviationBMC Anesthesiol.
ISSN (online)1471-2253
ScopeAnesthesiology and Pain Medicine

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