How to format your references using the South African Medical Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for South African Medical Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Markov IL. Limits on fundamental limits to computation. Nature 2014;512(7513):147–54.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Schadt CW, Rosling A. FUNGAL BIOGEOGRAPHY. Comment on “Global diversity and geography of soil fungi.” Science 2015;348(6242):1438.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Fowler JH, Johnson T, Smirnov O. Human behaviour: Egalitarian motive and altruistic punishment. Nature 2005;433(7021):1 p following 32; discussion following 32.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Sato NK, Aso N, Miyake K, Shiina R, Thalmeier P, Varelogiannis G, et al. Strong coupling between local moments and superconducting “heavy” electrons in UPd2Al3. Nature 2001;410(6826):340–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Hoffmann K. System Integration. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2005.
An edited book
1.
Ustundag A, editor. The Value of RFID: Benefits vs. Costs. London: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Hamilton D, Zufiaurre B. New Education for New Times. In: Zufiaurre B, editor. Blackboards and Bootstraps: Revisioning Education and Schooling. Rotterdam: SensePublishers; 2014. page 87–111.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for South African Medical Journal.

Blog post
1.
Luntz S. Scientists Work Out How To Make Matter From Light [Internet]. IFLScience2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30];Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/physics/scientists-work-out-how-make-matter-light/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Information Technology: HUD Needs to Better Define Commitments and Disclose Risks for Modernization Projects in Future Expenditure Plans. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2010.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Matsuda T. Computational proposal for locating local defects in superconducting tapes. 2012;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Crow K. Healing and Burnout, 12 Hours at a Stretch. New York Times2001;152.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSouth African Medical Journal
AbbreviationS. Afr. Med. J.
ISSN (print)0256-9574
ISSN (online)2078-5135
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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