How to format your references using the South African Medical Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for South African Medical Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Mueller KL. Cancer immunology and immunotherapy. Realizing the promise. Introduction. Science 2015;348(6230):54–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Zhu H, Owen MR. Damped propagation of cell polarization explains distinct PCP phenotypes of epithelial patterning. Sci Rep 2013;3:2528.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Mito Y, Henikoff JG, Henikoff S. Histone replacement marks the boundaries of cis-regulatory domains. Science 2007;315(5817):1408–11.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Michel J-B, Shen YK, Aiden AP, Veres A, Gray MK, Google Books Team, et al. Quantitative analysis of culture using millions of digitized books. Science 2011;331(6014):176–82.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Laplante PA, Ovaska SJ. Real-Time Systems Design and Analysis. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
1.
Khan NA, editor. Ethylene Action in Plants. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Hogan M, Tacke M. Titanocenes: Cytotoxic and Anti-angiogenic Chemotherapy Against Advanced Renal-Cell Cancer. In: Jaouen G, Metzler-Nolte N, editors. Medicinal Organometallic Chemistry. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010. page 119–40.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for South African Medical Journal.

Blog post
1.
O`Callaghan J. The Mystery Of Knut The Polar Bear’s Death May Have Been Solved. IFLScience2015;

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Intercity Passenger Rail: Congress Faces Critical Decisions in Developing a National Policy. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2002.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Lofton CD. Mid-Career Transitions: A Qualitative Study Examining the Developmental Relationships, Attitudes, Networks, and Strategies of Frontline Workers that Seek Career Development and Advancement. 2012;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Chira S. Since When is Being a Woman a Liberal Cause? New York Times2017;SR9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSouth African Medical Journal
AbbreviationS. Afr. Med. J.
ISSN (print)0256-9574
ISSN (online)2078-5135
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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