How to format your references using the World Journal of Emergency Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for World Journal of Emergency Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Cifelli RL. Zofia Kielan-Jaworowska (1925-2015). Nature. 2015;520:158.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Takeuchi T, Morris RGM. Neuroscience: Shedding light on a change of mind. Nature. 2014;513:323–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Sun BK, Siprashvili Z, Khavari PA. Advances in skin grafting and treatment of cutaneous wounds. Science. 2014;346:941–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Dale GL, Friese P, Batar P, Hamilton SF, Reed GL, Jackson KW, et al. Stimulated platelets use serotonin to enhance their retention of procoagulant proteins on the cell surface. Nature. 2002;415:175–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Montgomery GE, Schuch HC. GIS Data Conversion Handbook. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2007.
An edited book
1. Okada A, Buckingham Shum SJ, Sherborne T, editors. Knowledge Cartography: Software Tools and Mapping Techniques. 2nd ed. 2014. London: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Kutikhin A, Brusina E, Yuzhalin AE. Hepatitis Viruses, Atherosclerosis, and Related Diseases. In: Brusina E, Yuzhalin AE, editors. Viruses and Atherosclerosis. New York, NY: Springer; 2013. p. 49–63.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for World Journal of Emergency Surgery.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Scientists Grow First Contracting Human Muscle Tissue In Lab. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Telecommunications: Research and Regulatory Efforts on Mobile Phone Health Issues. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2001 May. Report No.: GAO-01-545.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Wu D-MC. Function and regulation of Drosophila myc during wing growth [Doctoral dissertation]. [New York, NY]: Columbia University; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Walsh MW, Cooper M. Illinois Pension Bonds to Test Investors’ Faith. New York Times. 2011 Feb 18;B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleWorld Journal of Emergency Surgery
AbbreviationWorld J. Emerg. Surg.
ISSN (online)1749-7922
ScopeEmergency Medicine
Surgery

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