How to format your references using the World Journal of Emergency Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for World Journal of Emergency Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Waychunas GA. Interfacial chemistry. Disrupting dissolving ions at surfaces with fluid flow. Science. 2014;344:1094–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Piskorowski R, Aldrich RW. Calcium activation of BK(Ca) potassium channels lacking the calcium bowl and RCK domains. Nature. 2002;420:499–502.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Zinchuk V, Wu Y, Grossenbacher-Zinchuk O. Bridging the gap between qualitative and quantitative colocalization results in fluorescence microscopy studies. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1365.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Gu C, Zhang X, Jiang J, Guan Z, Zhao S, Fang W, et al. Chrysanthemum CmNAR2 interacts with CmNRT2 in the control of nitrate uptake. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5833.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Ibe EH. Terrestrial Radiation Effects in ULSI Devices and Electronic Systems. Singapore: John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
1. Giglioni G, Lancaster JAT, Corneanu S, Jalobeanu D, editors. Francis Bacon on Motion and Power. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Manchanda S, Steemers K. Environmental Control and the Creation of Well-being. In: Rassia ST, Pardalos PM, editors. Sustainable Environmental Design in Architecture: Impacts on Health. New York, NY: Springer; 2012. p. 69–81.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for World Journal of Emergency Surgery.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Physicists Develop Reversible Laser Tractor Beam Functional Over Long Distances. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Income Security Issue Area: Active Assignments. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997 Sep. Report No.: AA-97-11(3).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Hausmann RC. Organizing Ecosystems for Social Innovation: The Relationality of Contexts and Mechanisms in a Social Entrepreneurship Network [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Vecsey G. Open Skies, Bouncing Balls and Tough Critiques. New York Times. 2011 Sep 9;B14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleWorld Journal of Emergency Surgery
AbbreviationWorld J. Emerg. Surg.
ISSN (online)1749-7922
ScopeEmergency Medicine
Surgery

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