How to format your references using the World Journal of Emergency Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for World Journal of Emergency Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Gewin V. Biosphere owner sues sponsor. Nature. 2003;422:461.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Miles L, Kapos V. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation and forest degradation: global land-use implications. Science. 2008;320:1454–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Willner AE, Wang J, Huang H. Applied physics. A different angle on light communications. Science. 2012;337:655–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Lunkenheimer P, Krohns S, Gemander F, Schmahl WW, Loidl A. Dielectric characterization of a nonlinear optical material. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6020.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Dehn MJ. Long-Term Memory Problems in Children and Adolescents. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
1. Precup R-E, Kovács S, Preitl S, Petriu EM, editors. Applied Computational Intelligence in Engineering and Information Technology: Revised and Selected Papers from the 6th IEEE International Symposium on Applied Computational Intelligence and Informatics SACI 2011. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Tomczak JM, Haule K, Kotliar G. Thermopower of the Correlated Narrow Gap Semiconductor FeSi and Comparison to RuSi. In: Zlatic V, Hewson A, editors. New Materials for Thermoelectric Applications: Theory and Experiment. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2013. p. 45–57.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for World Journal of Emergency Surgery.

Blog post
1. Davis J. Hydroelectric Dams Drastically Reduce Biodiversity. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Intercity Passenger Rail: Assessing the Benefits of Increased Federal Funding for Amtrak and High-Speed Passenger Rail Systems. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2001 Mar. Report No.: GAO-01-480T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Yu W. Impacts of storms and sea-level rise on coastal evolution between two capes: Onslow Bay, North Carolina [Doctoral dissertation]. [Chapel Hill, NC]: University of North Carolina; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Vecsey G. Jets Cause a Spectacle, This Time on the Field. New York Times. 2010 Sep 20;D5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleWorld Journal of Emergency Surgery
AbbreviationWorld J. Emerg. Surg.
ISSN (online)1749-7922
ScopeEmergency Medicine
Surgery

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