How to format your references using the World Journal of Emergency Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for World Journal of Emergency Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Powell K. Getting schooled. Nature. 2005;435:850–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Collini E, Scholes GD. Coherent intrachain energy migration in a conjugated polymer at room temperature. Science. 2009;323:369–73.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Mayle FE, Burbridge R, Killeen TJ. Millennial-scale dynamics of southern Amazonian rain forests. Science. 2000;290:2291–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Cole MT, Teo KBK, Groening O, Gangloff L, Legagneux P, Milne WI. Deterministic cold cathode electron emission from carbon nanofibre arrays. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4840.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Schwedt G. Zuckersüße Chemie. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2010.
An edited book
1. Watts RA, Scott DGI, editors. Vasculitis in Clinical Practice. London: Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Gao Q, Zhang W, Tian F. Revolutionary Legal System: From Common Program to 1975 Constitution. In: Zhang W, Tian F, editors. The Road to the Rule of Law in Modern China. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2015. p. 61–98.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for World Journal of Emergency Surgery.

Blog post
1. Hamilton K. Five Phenomenal Science Stunts Done With Dry Ice. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. School Dropouts: Education Could Play a Stronger Role in Identifying and Disseminating Promising Prevention Strategies. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2002 Feb. Report No.: GAO-02-240.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Truong T. Microfluidics-based system for high-throughput analysis of nitrite in harbor water [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Goodman J. The Other 1 Percent. New York Times. 2016 Oct 9;BR25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleWorld Journal of Emergency Surgery
AbbreviationWorld J. Emerg. Surg.
ISSN (online)1749-7922
ScopeEmergency Medicine

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