How to format your references using the World Journal of Emergency Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for World Journal of Emergency Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Taylor R. Hydrology: When wells run dry. Nature. 2014;516:179–80.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Li D, Agha L. Research funding. Big names or big ideas: do peer-review panels select the best science proposals? Science. 2015;348:434–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Plerou V, Gopikrishnan P, Stanley HE. Econophysics: Two-phase behaviour of financial markets. Nature. 2003;421:130.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Lu P, Min D, DiMaio F, Wei KY, Vahey MD, Boyken SE, et al. Accurate computational design of multipass transmembrane proteins. Science. 2018;359:1042–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Ambaum MHP. Thermal Physics of the Atmosphere. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2010.
An edited book
1. Nowobilska M. Potsdamer Platz: The Reshaping of Berlin. Zaman QM, editor. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Antoniou G, Harmelen F van. Web Ontology Language: OWL. In: Staab S, Studer R, editors. Handbook on Ontologies. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009. p. 91–110.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for World Journal of Emergency Surgery.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Watch chemicals turn into memories - the first time this has ever been recorded [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Trademark ADP System: Patent Office Should Analyze Alternatives Before Contract Award. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1987 Aug. Report No.: IMTEC-87-44.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Chen AP. An efficient algorithm for calculating fluctuation field and simulating the thermal magnetic aftereffect [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Pilon M. Tarnish on the Torch. New York Times. 2016 Jul 24;BR11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleWorld Journal of Emergency Surgery
AbbreviationWorld J. Emerg. Surg.
ISSN (online)1749-7922
ScopeEmergency Medicine

Other styles