How to format your references using the Pharmacognosy Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pharmacognosy Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Russo E. Getting on the fast-track to full-time employment. Nature. 2004;432(7014):254-255.
A journal article with 2 authors
Marmorstein R, Simon MC. Structural biology: Hypoxia response becomes crystal clear. Nature. 2015;524(7565):298-300.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ting JPY, Duncan JA, Lei Y. How the noninflammasome NLRs function in the innate immune system. Science. 2010;327(5963):286-290.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Tadaki K, Iono D, Yun MS, et al. The gravitationally unstable gas disk of a starburst galaxy 12 billion years ago. Nature. 2018;560(7720):613-616.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pilot MJ. Driving Sustainability to Business Success. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
Norman RA. Clinical Cases in Integrative Dermatology. Vol 4. (Rupani R, ed.). Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Xie J. Research on Complex Networks Evolution Model. In: Jin D, Lin S, eds. Advances in Computer Science and Information Engineering: Volume 1. Advances in Intelligent and Soft Computing. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012:29-33.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pharmacognosy Journal.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. Astronomers Spot Black Hole So big, It Defies Current Theories Of Galaxy Evolution. IFLScience. Published July 10, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Railroad Regulation: Competitive Access and Its Effects on Selected Railroads and Shippers. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1987.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Koester A. It All Started on a Lake. 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Yablonsky L. Artists in Residence. New York Times. September 22, 2010:M224.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titlePharmacognosy Journal
ISSN (print)0975-3575
ScopeDrug Discovery

Other styles