How to format your references using the Pharmacognosy Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pharmacognosy Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wang Q. Rural students are being left behind in China. Nature. 2014;510(7506):445.
A journal article with 2 authors
Floyd SK, Bowman JL. Gene regulation: ancient microRNA target sequences in plants. Nature. 2004;428(6982):485-486.
A journal article with 3 authors
Conaway RC, Brower CS, Conaway JW. Emerging roles of ubiquitin in transcription regulation. Science. 2002;296(5571):1254-1258.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Yager P, Edwards T, Fu E, et al. Microfluidic diagnostic technologies for global public health. Nature. 2006;442(7101):412-418.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lu K. Materials in Energy Conversion, Harvesting, and Storage. John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2014.
An edited book
Rieber RW, ed. Encyclopedia of the History of Psychological Theories. Springer US; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Mizuguchi S, Ohta K, Beers PJ, Yamaguchi M, Nishimura T. Interactions Among Multiple Niche-Innovations and Multi-regimes: The Case of the “Welfare Mall” in Higashiomi. In: Loorbach D, Wittmayer JM, Shiroyama H, Fujino J, Mizuguchi S, eds. Governance of Urban Sustainability Transitions: European and Asian Experiences. Theory and Practice of Urban Sustainability Transitions. Springer Japan; 2016:69-89.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pharmacognosy Journal.

Blog post
Andrew E. Hundreds Of Meteors Will Light Up The Night Sky Tonight. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Status of Special National Direct Student Loan Funds. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1980.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schroeder SK. Tau-Directed Immunotherapy for Alzheimer’s Disease. Published online 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Paulson M. Hello? Dolly? Bette Midler Might Not Sing at Tonys. New York Times. May 29, 2017:C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titlePharmacognosy Journal
ISSN (print)0975-3575
ScopeDrug Discovery

Other styles