How to format your references using the Ecological Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ecological Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chapman T (2003) Easing the strain. Nature 425:869
A journal article with 2 authors
Koch C, Hepp K (2006) Quantum mechanics in the brain. Nature 440:611
A journal article with 3 authors
Caron J-B, Morris SC, Cameron CB (2013) Tubicolous enteropneusts from the Cambrian period. Nature 495:503–506
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Nowak MA, Sasaki A, Taylor C, Fudenberg D (2004) Emergence of cooperation and evolutionary stability in finite populations. Nature 428:646–650

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Brown T, Andrews GJ, Cummins S, et al (2017) Health Geographies. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Stanczak S (2008) Fundamentals of Resource Allocation in Wireless Networks: Theory and Algorithms. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Meesenburg H, Brumme R, Jacobsen C, et al (2009) Soil Properties. In: Brumme R, Khanna PK (eds) Functioning and Management of European Beech Ecosystems. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 33–47

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ecological Research.

Blog post
Davis J (2015) How To Tell If Someone Is A Psychopath. In: IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/brain/can-you-really-tell-if-someone-psychopath/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1994) Army Aviation: Modernization Strategy Needs to Be Reassessed. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dougherty MH (2009) Identification of needs reported by grandparents of grandchildren, from birth to twenty-one years, with disabilities in the commonwealth of Kentucky. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin J (2016) That Padres Pitcher, She’s Got a Mean Screwball. New York Times AR118

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Chapman 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Chapman 2003; Koch and Hepp 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Koch and Hepp 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Nowak et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcological Research
AbbreviationEcol. Res.
ISSN (print)0912-3814
ISSN (online)1440-1703
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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