How to format your references using the Ecological Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ecological Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Eliasson J (2015) The rising pressure of global water shortages. Nature 517:6
A journal article with 2 authors
Perepichka DF, Rosei F (2009) Chemistry. Extending polymer conjugation into the second dimension. Science 323:216–217
A journal article with 3 authors
Baarlink C, Wang H, Grosse R (2013) Nuclear actin network assembly by formins regulates the SRF coactivator MAL. Science 340:864–867
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Fleming IA, Einum S, Jonsson B, Jonsson N (2003) Comment on “rapid evolution of egg size in captive Salmon.” Science 302:59; discussion 59

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Henderson B, Dorsey J (2008) Medical Terminology for Dummies®. Wiley Publishing, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Pielke R, Klein RA (eds) (2010) Presidential Science Advisors: Perspectives and Reflections on Science, Policy and Politics. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Iriondo I, Planet S, Socoró J-C, Alías F (2007) Objective and Subjective Evaluation of an Expressive Speech Corpus. In: Chetouani M, Hussain A, Gas B, et al. (eds) Advances in Nonlinear Speech Processing: International Conference on Non-Linear Speech Processing, NOLISP 2007 Paris, France, May 22-25, 2007 Revised Selected Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 86–94

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ecological Research.

Blog post
Taub B (2016) Climate Change Could Wipe Out 60 Percent Of Adélie Penguins This Century, Study Finds. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2006) Internet Infrastructure: Challenges in Developing a Public/Private Recovery Plan. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sokolov CK (2017) Teacher Engagement In Grades 4-8. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sexton LG (2009) A Tortured Inheritance. New York Times A29

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Eliasson 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Perepichka and Rosei 2009; Eliasson 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Perepichka and Rosei 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Fleming et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcological Research
AbbreviationEcol. Res.
ISSN (print)0912-3814
ISSN (online)1440-1703
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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