How to format your references using the Ecological Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ecological Research (Ecol Res). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Anbar AD (2008) Oceans. Elements and evolution. Science 322:1481–1483
A journal article with 2 authors
Iijima N, Iwasaki A (2014) T cell memory. A local macrophage chemokine network sustains protective tissue-resident memory CD4 T cells. Science 346:93–98
A journal article with 3 authors
Sale JE, Patel KJ, Batista FD (2013) Retrospective. Michael Neuberger (1953-2013). Science 342:1335
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Mali SS, Kim H, Shim CS, et al (2013) Surfactant free most probable TiO₂ nanostructures via hydrothermal and its dye sensitized solar cell properties. Sci Rep 3:3004

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zhao G (2017) Reuse and Recycling of Lithium-Ion Power Batteries. John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd, Singapore
An edited book
Zhang J, Shao L, Zhang L, Jones GA (eds) (2010) Intelligent Video Event Analysis and Understanding. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Kuswanto K, Hoen HW, Holzhacker RL (2016) Decentralization, Foreign Direct Investment and Development in Indonesia. In: Holzhacker RL, Wittek R, Woltjer J (eds) Decentralization and Governance in Indonesia. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 105–143

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ecological Research.

Blog post
Carpineti A (2015) White Dwarf Has Rare Ring System After Ripping An Asteroid Apart. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1992) Guaranty Agency Solvency: Can the Government Recover HEAF’s First-Year Liquidation Cost of $212 Million? U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chung Y-K (2010) A comparison of particle swarm optimization algorithms in data clustering. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW (2012) Crushed by Promises. New York Times B1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Anbar 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Anbar 2008, [CSL STYLE ERROR: reference with no printed form.]).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Iijima and Iwasaki 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Mali et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcological Research
AbbreviationEcol. Res.
ISSN (print)0912-3814
ISSN (online)1440-1703
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

Other styles