How to format your references using the World Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for World Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sanderson, K. (2011). Lignocellulose: A chewy problem. Nature, 474(7352), S12-4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cooper, V. S., & Lenski, R. E. (2000). The population genetics of ecological specialization in evolving Escherichia coli populations. Nature, 407(6805), 736–739.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kurth, I., Georgescu, R. E., & O’Donnell, M. E. (2013). A solution to release twisted DNA during chromosome replication by coupled DNA polymerases. Nature, 496(7443), 119–122.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Kawamoto, A., Morimoto, Y. V., Miyata, T., Minamino, T., Hughes, K. T., Kato, T., & Namba, K. (2013). Common and distinct structural features of Salmonella injectisome and flagellar basal body. Scientific Reports, 3, 3369.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Shover, L. (2010). Trading Options in Turbulent Markets. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Schmidt, V. (Ed.). (2015). Stochastic Geometry, Spatial Statistics and Random Fields: Models and Algorithms (Vol. 2120). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Haughton, D., McLaughlin, M.-D., Mentzer, K., & Zhang, C. (2015). Movie Attendance and Trends. In M.-D. McLaughlin, K. Mentzer, & C. Zhang (Eds.), Movie Analytics: A Hollywood Introduction to Big Data (pp. 25–36). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for World Development.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2015, October 22). The Closest Exoplanet To Earth May Be Nothing More Than An Illusion. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1990). Space Data: Information on Data Storage Technologies (No. IMTEC-90-88FS). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Miller, A. (2017). Group Mentoring Program to Empower Transitional-Aged Youth: A Grant Proposal (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rojas, R. (2017, April 30). During Rikers Upheaval, the ‘Prettiest Village in Maine’ Beckoned. New York Times, p. A17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sanderson, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Cooper & Lenski, 2000; Sanderson, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cooper & Lenski, 2000)
  • Three authors: (Kurth, Georgescu, & O’Donnell, 2013)
  • 6 or more authors: (Kawamoto et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleWorld Development
AbbreviationWorld Dev.
ISSN (print)0305-750X
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics
Geography, Planning and Development
Sociology and Political Science

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