How to format your references using the BMC Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Kilpatrick AM. Globalization, land use, and the invasion of West Nile virus. Science. 2011;334:323–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Sheth U, Parker R. Decapping and decay of messenger RNA occur in cytoplasmic processing bodies. Science. 2003;300:805–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Bandyopadhyay PR, Leinhos HA, Hellum AM. Handedness helps homing in swimming and flying animals. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1128.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Wang X, Kruithof-de Julio M, Economides KD, Walker D, Yu H, Halili MV, et al. A luminal epithelial stem cell that is a cell of origin for prostate cancer. Nature. 2009;461:495–500.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Toptygin IN. Electromagnetic Phenomena in Matter. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2015.
An edited book
1. Borisov N, Goldberg I, editors. Privacy Enhancing Technologies: 8th International Symposium, PETS 2008 Leuven, Belgium, July 23-25, 2008 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Gibson B, Perentesis J, Alonzo TA, Kaspers GJL. Treatment of Acute Myeloid Leukemia. In: Reaman GH, Smith FO, editors. Childhood Leukemia: A Practical Handbook. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011. p. 121–60.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Surgery.

Blog post
1. Evans K. Would You Drink Virtual Lemonade? IFLScience. 2017. https://www.iflscience.com/technology/would-you-drink-virtual-lemonade/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Mass Transit: FTA Needs to Provide Clear Information and Additional Guidance on the New Starts Ratings Process. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2003.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Miller NY. Nutrition education series for female club soccer players 14 to 18 years of age. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Koblin J. HBO Renews 3 Series. New York Times. 2016;:C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Surgery
AbbreviationBMC Surg.
ISSN (online)1471-2482
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Surgery

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