How to format your references using the BMC Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Johnson SC. Translational Medicine. A target for pharmacological intervention in an untreatable human disease. Science. 2014;346:1192.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Lee WL, Grinstein S. Immunology. The tangled webs that neutrophils weave. Science. 2004;303:1477–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Riedel IH, Kruse K, Howard J. A self-organized vortex array of hydrodynamically entrained sperm cells. Science. 2005;309:300–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. O’Dowd CD, Facchini MC, Cavalli F, Ceburnis D, Mircea M, Decesari S, et al. Biogenically driven organic contribution to marine aerosol. Nature. 2004;431:676–80.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Glaser R. Symmetry, Spectroscopy, and Crystallography. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2015.
An edited book
1. AbuRahma AF, Bandyk DF, editors. Noninvasive Vascular Diagnosis: A Practical Guide to Therapy. 3rd ed. 2013. London: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Rager O, Becker M, Beer AJ. Head and Neck Cancers. In: Ratib O, Schwaiger M, Beyer T, editors. Atlas of PET/MR Imaging in Oncology. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. p. 43–60.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Surgery.

Blog post
1. Andrew D. New Study Finds Common Link Across Autism Spectrum Disorders. IFLScience. 2016. https://www.iflscience.com/brain/new-study-finds-common-link-across-autism-spectrum-disorders/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Aviation: Impact of Fuel Price Increases on the Aviation Industry. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2014.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Naro A. The effects of the structural components of 4-H residential summer programs on the achievement of the essential elements of positive youth development and the acquisition of targeted life skills. Doctoral dissertation. Mississippi State University; 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kenigsberg B. Midsummer in Newtown. New York Times. 2017;:C9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Surgery
AbbreviationBMC Surg.
ISSN (online)1471-2482
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Surgery

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