How to format your references using the WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pierrehumbert RT (2004) High levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide necessary for the termination of global glaciation. Nature 429:646–649
A journal article with 2 authors
Petro JB, Relman DA (2003) Public health. Understanding threats to scientific openness. Science 302:1898
A journal article with 3 authors
Murakami S, Nagaosa N, Zhang S-C (2003) Dissipationless quantum spin current at room temperature. Science 301:1348–1351
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Mizutani K-I, Yoon K, Dang L, et al (2007) Differential Notch signalling distinguishes neural stem cells from intermediate progenitors. Nature 449:351–355

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Moeller R (2010) IT Audit, Control, and Security. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Marsh LK, Chapman CA (eds) (2013) Primates in Fragments: Complexity and Resilience. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Münch J, Armbrust O, Kowalczyk M, Soto M (2012) Process Improvement. In: Armbrust O, Kowalczyk M, Soto M (eds) Software Process Definition and Management. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 139–176

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs.

Blog post
Hale T (2016) Explore A Mystery Structure Found At A Stone Age Dump Through This 3D Model. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1996) Programs for Land-Grant Schools. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Munim A (2013) Studies on the role of vitamin D in asthma patients from a south Florida pulmonary practice. Doctoral dissertation, Florida Atlantic University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J (2017) Mets Form Dream Infield, for a Chiropractor. New York Times D2

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Pierrehumbert 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Petro and Relman 2003; Pierrehumbert 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Petro and Relman 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Mizutani et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleWMU Journal of Maritime Affairs
ISSN (print)1651-436X
ISSN (online)1654-1642
ScopeManagement, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Human Factors and Ergonomics
Safety Research

Other styles