How to format your references using the WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Seitz F (2000) Decline of the generalist. Nature 403:483
A journal article with 2 authors
Santos ME, Salzburger W (2012) Evolution. How cichlids diversify. Science 338:619–621
A journal article with 3 authors
Swan A, Cockerill M, Sipp D (2013) Advocacy: How to hasten open access. Nature 495:442–443
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Yuan HQ, Grosche FM, Deppe M, et al (2003) Observation of two distinct superconducting phases in CeCu2Si2. Science 302:2104–2107

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Caltagirone J-P (2015) Discrete Mechanics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Zhang Z, Huang K (eds) (2016) Intelligent Visual Surveillance: 4th Chinese Conference, IVS 2016, Beijing, China, October 19, 2016, Proceedings. Springer, Singapore
A chapter in an edited book
Faggioni L, Neri E (2010) Image Processing. In: Neri E, Cosottini M, Caramella D (eds) MR Angiography of the Body. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 35–44

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) There’s A “Blue Moon” This Friday - But What Does That Mean? In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1985) The Job Training Partnership Act: An Analysis of Support Cost Limits and Participant Characteristics. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tan SW (2013) A pedagogical approach to selected études from Étude en douze exercices, S.136 and Études d ’exécution transcendante, S.139 by Franz Liszt. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard B (2016) Decline in Oil Prices Lands on Government Workers as Saudi Arabia Cuts Paychecks. New York Times A6

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Seitz 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Seitz 2000; Santos and Salzburger 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Santos and Salzburger 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Yuan et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleWMU Journal of Maritime Affairs
ISSN (print)1651-436X
ISSN (online)1654-1642
ScopeManagement, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Human Factors and Ergonomics
Safety Research

Other styles