How to format your references using the WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs (WMU J Marit Affairs). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kress M (2012) Modeling armed conflicts. Science 336:865–869
A journal article with 2 authors
Waddell S, Quinn WG (2001) Neurobiology. Learning how a fruit fly forgets. Science 293:1271–1272
A journal article with 3 authors
Inaba M, Buszczak M, Yamashita YM (2015) Nanotubes mediate niche-stem-cell signalling in the Drosophila testis. Nature 523:329–332
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Dinnebier RE, Gunnarsson O, Brumm H, et al (2002) Structure of haloform intercalated C60 and its influence on superconductive properties. Science 296:109–113

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jazar RN (2011) Advanced Dynamics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Jiang X, Ferrer M, Torsello A (eds) (2011) Graph-Based Representations in Pattern Recognition: 8th IAPR-TC-15 International Workshop, GbRPR 2011, Münster, Germany, May 18-20, 2011. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Golani M, Gal A (2005) Flexible Business Process Management Using Forward Stepping and Alternative Paths. In: Aalst WMP van der, Benatallah B, Casati F, Curbera F (eds) Business Process Management: 3rd International Conference, BPM 2005, Nancy, France, September 5-8, 2005. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 48–63

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs.

Blog post
Fang J (2016) Starving Microscopic Algae Will Digest Themselves. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1974) Problems of the Upward Bound Program in Preparing Disadvantaged Students for a Postsecondary Education. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Busalacchi NM (2013) Access to healthcare: Disparities between the non-elderly adult population. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McKINLEY JC Jr (2017) Top Judge Goes Where Flaws Are Acute to Address State of Courts. New York Times A20

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Watanabe 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Wain-Hobson 2013; Watt 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Waddell and Quinn 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Brown et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleWMU Journal of Maritime Affairs
ISSN (print)1651-436X
ISSN (online)1654-1642
ScopeManagement, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Human Factors and Ergonomics
Safety Research

Other styles