How to format your references using the WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Edelman GM (2007) Learning in and from brain-based devices. Science 318:1103–1105
A journal article with 2 authors
Draine BT, Ostriker JP (2007) Obituary: Bohdan Paczyński (1940-2007). Nature 447:1065
A journal article with 3 authors
Bennett MJ, Lebrón JA, Bjorkman PJ (2000) Crystal structure of the hereditary haemochromatosis protein HFE complexed with transferrin receptor. Nature 403:46–53
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Zha Z, Wang J, Qu E, et al (2013) Polypyrrole hollow microspheres as echogenic photothermal agent for ultrasound imaging guided tumor ablation. Sci Rep 3:2360

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fanchi JR (2006) Math Refresher for Scientists and Engineers. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Lu Y, Essex M, Chanyasulkit C (eds) (2013) HIV/AIDS Treatment in Resource Poor Countries: Public Health Challenges. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Gardiner JM, Atema J (2014) Flow Sensing in Sharks: Lateral Line Contributions to Navigation and Prey Capture. In: Bleckmann H, Mogdans J, Coombs SL (eds) Flow Sensing in Air and Water: Behavioral, Neural and Engineering Principles of Operation. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 127–146

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs.

Blog post
Taub B (2016) New Study Reveals How Cannabis Interferes With The Development Of Brain Connections. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1970) Overstatement of Contract Target Cost for First Stage of Saturn V Launch Vehicle. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Brecese JA (2012) Out of Our Depth: Hyper-Extensionality and the Return of Three-Dimensional Media. Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams J (2017) Long Live the Prince. New York Times BR9

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Edelman 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Draine and Ostriker 2007; Edelman 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Draine and Ostriker 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Zha et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleWMU Journal of Maritime Affairs
ISSN (print)1651-436X
ISSN (online)1654-1642
ScopeManagement, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Human Factors and Ergonomics
Safety Research

Other styles