How to format your references using the WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik P (2002) Building the triangle: North Carolina. Nature 416:4–5
A journal article with 2 authors
Lieberman RL, Rosenzweig AC (2005) Crystal structure of a membrane-bound metalloenzyme that catalyses the biological oxidation of methane. Nature 434:177–182
A journal article with 3 authors
Boisvert CA, Mark-Kurik E, Ahlberg PE (2008) The pectoral fin of Panderichthys and the origin of digits. Nature 456:636–638
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Kafsack BFC, Pena JDO, Coppens I, et al (2009) Rapid membrane disruption by a perforin-like protein facilitates parasite exit from host cells. Science 323:530–533

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mitra A (2008) Fundamentals of Quality Control and Improvement. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Aleman A (2009) The Hardy Space of a Slit Domain. Birkhäuser, Basel
A chapter in an edited book
Aldana-Reyes X (2016) Discipline… But Punish!: Foucault, Agamben and Torture Porn’s Thanotopolitical Scaffold. In: de Valk M (ed) Screening the Tortured Body: The Cinema as Scaffold. Palgrave Macmillan UK, London, pp 51–69

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Watch a Vampire Squid Turn Itself Inside Out. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1991) Air Traffic Control: Software Problems at Control Centers Need Immediate Attention. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Taboada-Peña R (2017) A Self-Empowering Holistic Art-Based Model Designed to Promote Emotional Well-Being, Coping Skills, and Self-Esteem in Youth. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Steinmetz P by G (2014) Let a Hundred McMansions Bloom. New York Times MM51

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Smaglik 2002; Lieberman and Rosenzweig 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lieberman and Rosenzweig 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Kafsack et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleWMU Journal of Maritime Affairs
ISSN (print)1651-436X
ISSN (online)1654-1642
ScopeManagement, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Human Factors and Ergonomics
Safety Research
Transportation

Other styles