How to format your references using the WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik P (2000) US industry starts to think big by acting small. Nature 408:621–622
A journal article with 2 authors
Rosenthal Y, Broccoli AJ (2004) Atmospheric science. In search of paleo-ENSO. Science 304:219–221
A journal article with 3 authors
Lohrer AM, Thrush SF, Gibbs MM (2004) Bioturbators enhance ecosystem function through complex biogeochemical interactions. Nature 431:1092–1095
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Aarts M, Liu Y, Liu L, et al (2002) Treatment of ischemic brain damage by perturbing NMDA receptor- PSD-95 protein interactions. Science 298:846–850

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Héno R, Chandelier L (2014) 3D Modeling of Buildings. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Fleuren H, Hertog DD, Kort P (eds) (2005) Operations Research Proceedings 2004: Selected Papers of the Annual International Conference of the German Operations Research Society (GOR). Jointly Organized with the Netherlands Society for Operations Research (NGB) Tilburg, September 1–3, 2004. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Levine SN, Smith JO Iii (2007) A Compact and Malleable Sines+Transients+Noise Model for Sound. In: Beauchamp JW (ed) Analysis, Synthesis, and Perception of Musical Sounds: The Sound of Music. Springer, New York, NY, pp 145–174

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Deformed Pig With “Penis Face” Draws Attention in China. In: IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/deformed-pig-penis-face-draws-attention-china/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1998) Airfield Pavement: Keeping Nation’s Runways in Good Condition Could Require Substantially Higher Spending. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Eastwood JL (2010) The effects of an interdisciplinary undergraduate human biology program on socioscientific reasoning, content learning, and understanding of inquiry. Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J (2016) Custom Cleats for the Polished Player. New York Times D6

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Smaglik 2000; Rosenthal and Broccoli 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rosenthal and Broccoli 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Aarts et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleWMU Journal of Maritime Affairs
ISSN (print)1651-436X
ISSN (online)1654-1642
ScopeManagement, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Human Factors and Ergonomics
Safety Research
Transportation

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