How to format your references using the WIRTSCHAFTSINFORMATIK citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for WIRTSCHAFTSINFORMATIK. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Robinson NJ (2011) Structural biology: a platform for copper pumps. Nature 475:41–42
A journal article with 2 authors
Yeston J, Coontz R (2009) Industrial chemistry. Chemistry writ large. Introduction. Science 325:691
A journal article with 3 authors
Bylinskii A, Gangloff D, Vuletić V (2015) Friction. Tuning friction atom-by-atom in an ion-crystal simulator. Science 348:1115–1118
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Liu R, Chen Q, Dong B, Yu F (2014) Effects of vegetative propagule pressure on the establishment of an introduced clonal plant, Hydrocotyle vulgaris. Sci Rep 4:5507

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jones NF (2008) The JCT Major Project Form. Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Oxford, UK
An edited book
Cimino G, Gavagnin M (eds) (2006) Molluscs: From Chemo-ecological Study to Biotechnological Application. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Bhansali P, Roychowdhury J (2011) Injection Locking Analysis and Simulation of Weakly Coupled Oscillator Networks. In: Li P, Silveira LM, Feldmann P (eds) Simulation and Verification of Electronic and Biological Systems. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 71–93

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for WIRTSCHAFTSINFORMATIK.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J (2017) Is The Human Mind Linked To Quantum Mechanics? In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2012) Unmanned Aircraft Systems: Measuring Progress and Addressing Potential Privacy Concerns Would Facilitate Integration into the National Airspace System [Reissued on September 18, 2012]. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schluter KT (2013) Hearing words without structure: Subliminal speech priming and the organization of the Moroccan Arabic lexicon. Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Brantley B (2017) Inside Hamlet. New York Times C1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Robinson 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Yeston and Coontz 2009; Robinson 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Yeston and Coontz 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Liu et al. 2014)

About the journal

ISSN (print)0937-6429
ISSN (online)1861-8936

Other styles