How to format your references using the WIRTSCHAFTSINFORMATIK citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for WIRTSCHAFTSINFORMATIK. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Giles J (2001) Mad cow disease comes to Japan. Nature 413:240
A journal article with 2 authors
Grewal SIS, Elgin SCR (2007) Transcription and RNA interference in the formation of heterochromatin. Nature 447:399–406
A journal article with 3 authors
Maduwage K, O’Leary MA, Isbister GK (2014) Diagnosis of snake envenomation using a simple phospholipase A2 assay. Sci Rep 4:4827
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Beaugrand G, Reid PC, Ibañez F, et al (2002) Reorganization of North Atlantic marine copepod biodiversity and climate. Science 296:1692–1694

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
French BA (2016) Chronicles Through the Centuries. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Janowitz MF, Dallal D (eds) (2013) Tales of Gotham, Historical Archaeology, Ethnohistory and Microhistory of New York City. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Katz M, Shaikovsky I (2011) Rich Input and Select Components. In: Shaikovsky I (ed) Practical RichFaces. Apress, Berkeley, CA, pp 95–132

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for WIRTSCHAFTSINFORMATIK.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Brain Scans Can Now Detect If You’re In Love. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1990) El Salvador: Pipeline of U.S. Aid as of August 1990. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ziegler RT (2017) The Impact of Strategic Planning Involvement on Employee Engagement in a Federal Public Health Agency. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L (2008) Court to Hear Challenge From Muslims Held After 9/11. New York Times A16

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Giles 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Giles 2001; Grewal and Elgin 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Grewal and Elgin 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Beaugrand et al. 2002)

About the journal

ISSN (print)0937-6429
ISSN (online)1861-8936

Other styles