How to format your references using the WIRTSCHAFTSINFORMATIK citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for WIRTSCHAFTSINFORMATIK. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gottfried K (2000) Inferring the statistical interpretation of quantum mechanics from the classical limit. Nature 405:533–536
A journal article with 2 authors
Roediger HL 3rd, DeSoto KA (2014) Cognitive psychology. Forgetting the presidents. Science 346:1106–1109
A journal article with 3 authors
Weber W, Riesen S, Siegmann HC (2001) Magnetization precession by hot spin injection. Science 291:1015–1018
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Burgert R, Schnöckel H, Grubisic A, et al (2008) Spin conservation accounts for aluminum cluster anion reactivity pattern with O2. Science 319:438–442

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gerardi MH (2010) Troubleshooting the Sequencing Batch Reactor. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Pooley R, Coady J, Schneider C, et al (eds) (2013) Information Systems Development: Reflections, Challenges and New Directions. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Matei O, Contras D (2016) Automated Product Design and Development Using Evolutionary Ontology. In: Silhavy R, Senkerik R, Oplatkova ZK, et al. (eds) Artificial Intelligence Perspectives in Intelligent Systems: Proceedings of the 5th Computer Science On-line Conference 2016 (CSOC2016), Vol 1. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 47–57

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for WIRTSCHAFTSINFORMATIK.

Blog post
Luntz S (2014) Americans Lack Confidence In Science On Politicized Topics. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1974) Survival of Higher Education in the Years Ahead. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jackson RA (2017) Musculoskeletal Injuries in California Ocean Lifeguards. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly M (1993) THE INAUGURATION: Seizing the Day; New President Brings Opportunity to Cash In. New York Times A12

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gottfried 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Gottfried 2000; Roediger and DeSoto 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Roediger and DeSoto 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Burgert et al. 2008)

About the journal

ISSN (print)0937-6429
ISSN (online)1861-8936

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