How to format your references using the WIRTSCHAFTSINFORMATIK citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for WIRTSCHAFTSINFORMATIK. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
O’Neill LAJ (2014) Biochemistry: succinate strikes. Nature 515:350–351
A journal article with 2 authors
Mitchell-Olds T, Schmitt J (2006) Genetic mechanisms and evolutionary significance of natural variation in Arabidopsis. Nature 441:947–952
A journal article with 3 authors
Zimmet P, Alberti KG, Shaw J (2001) Global and societal implications of the diabetes epidemic. Nature 414:782–787
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Enache DI, Edwards JK, Landon P, et al (2006) Solvent-free oxidation of primary alcohols to aldehydes using Au-Pd/TiO2 catalysts. Science 311:362–365

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Caferra R (2011) Logic for Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Johnson ME (ed) (2009) Managing Information Risk and the Economics of Security. Springer US, Boston, MA
A chapter in an edited book
Baklanov A, Bjergene N, Fay B, et al (2006) Forecasting Urban Meteorology, Air Pollution and Population Exposure (European FUMAPEX Project). In: Borrego C, Norman A-L (eds) Air Pollution Modeling and Its Application XVII. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp 29–40

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for WIRTSCHAFTSINFORMATIK.

Blog post
Hale T (2015) Rare Baby Dinosaur Fossil Rescued By A Blackhawk Helicopter. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1997) Safe and Drug-Free Schools: Balancing Accountability With State and Local Flexibility. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pan A (2017) The Mental Health and Well-Being of College Students in Cambodia. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW, Cooper M (2012) Recommendations for State and National Policy Makers. New York Times A3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (O’Neill 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Mitchell-Olds and Schmitt 2006; O’Neill 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Mitchell-Olds and Schmitt 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Enache et al. 2006)

About the journal

ISSN (print)0937-6429
ISSN (online)1861-8936

Other styles