How to format your references using the WIRTSCHAFTSINFORMATIK citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for WIRTSCHAFTSINFORMATIK. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bell J (2004) Predicting disease using genomics. Nature 429:453–456
A journal article with 2 authors
Mackem S, Lewandoski M (2011) Development. Limb cells don’t tell time. Science 332:1038–1039
A journal article with 3 authors
Mori T, Vale RD, Tomishige M (2007) How kinesin waits between steps. Nature 450:750–754
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Murphy JM, Sexton DMH, Barnett DN, et al (2004) Quantification of modelling uncertainties in a large ensemble of climate change simulations. Nature 430:768–772

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Trimble MR, George MS (2010) Biological Psychiatry. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Aßmann U, Bartho A, Wende C (eds) (2010) Reasoning Web. Semantic Technologies for Software Engineering: 6th International Summer School 2010, Dresden, Germany, August 30 - September 3, 2010. Tutorial Lectures. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Chiesa A, Fossati F, Gambacciani G, Pensavalle E (2015) Enabling Technologies for Active Space Debris Removal: The Cadet Project. In: Sgobba T, Rongier I (eds) Space Safety is No Accident: The 7th IAASS Conference. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 29–38

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for WIRTSCHAFTSINFORMATIK.

Blog post
Davis J (2016) Expert Committee Finds Genetically Engineered Crops Are As Safe To Eat As Conventionally Bred Plants. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1991) Tax System Modernization: Status of On-Line Files Initiative and Telecommunications Planning. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Allard IN (2010) Examining the relationship between organizational culture and performance: Moderators of culture gap. Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Ratliff B (2017) At Home in Her Range. New York Times BR17

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bell 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Bell 2004; Mackem and Lewandoski 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Mackem and Lewandoski 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Murphy et al. 2004)

About the journal

ISSN (print)0937-6429
ISSN (online)1861-8936

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