How to format your references using the WIRTSCHAFTSINFORMATIK citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for WIRTSCHAFTSINFORMATIK. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Eddy SR (2006) Genetics. Total information awareness for worm genetics. Science 311:1381–1382
A journal article with 2 authors
Gerst A, Savage MK (2004) Seismic anisotropy beneath Ruapehu volcano: a possible eruption forecasting tool. Science 306:1543–1547
A journal article with 3 authors
Nielsen SB, Stephenson R, Thomsen E (2007) Dynamics of Mid-Palaeocene North Atlantic rifting linked with European intra-plate deformations. Nature 450:1071–1074
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Galinha C, Hofhuis H, Luijten M, et al (2007) PLETHORA proteins as dose-dependent master regulators of Arabidopsis root development. Nature 449:1053–1057

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Garber R (2014) BIM Design. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Olsen H (2016) The Four Faces of the Republican Party: The Fight for the 2016 Presidential Nomination. Palgrave Macmillan UK, London
A chapter in an edited book
Aucher G, Maubert B, Schwarzentruber F (2012) Generalized DEL-Sequents. In: Cerro LF del, Herzig A, Mengin J (eds) Logics in Artificial Intelligence: 13th European Conference, JELIA 2012, Toulouse, France, September 26-28, 2012. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 54–66

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for WIRTSCHAFTSINFORMATIK.

Blog post
Andrew D (2016) Japan’s Latest Tsunami Reaction Shows Lessons Learned From Previous Disasters. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1983) FBI Management of Its Automated Information Systems. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Alla B (2017) Wellbore Stability Analysis of Sanish Field using 3-D Finite Element Model: Bakken Case Study. Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schwirtz M, Winerip M (2015) Tunnels, Disguises and Sewers: A Prison’s Inmates Have Found Many Ways to Flee. New York Times A20

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Eddy 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Gerst and Savage 2004; Eddy 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gerst and Savage 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Galinha et al. 2007)

About the journal

ISSN (print)0937-6429
ISSN (online)1861-8936

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