How to format your references using the WIRTSCHAFTSINFORMATIK citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for WIRTSCHAFTSINFORMATIK. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hemley RJ (2000) The element of uncertainty. Nature 404:240–241
A journal article with 2 authors
Hugall AF, Stuart-Fox D (2012) Accelerated speciation in colour-polymorphic birds. Nature 485:631–634
A journal article with 3 authors
Markos C, Kubat I, Bang O (2014) Hybrid polymer photonic crystal fiber with integrated chalcogenide glass nanofilms. Sci Rep 4:6057
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Huang T-H, Yang P-K, Lien D-H, et al (2014) Resistive memory for harsh electronics: immunity to surface effect and high corrosion resistance via surface modification. Sci Rep 4:4402

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fryirs KA, Brierley GJ (2012) Geomorphic Analysis of River Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Daly P, Reid K, Buckley P, Doyle E (eds) (2016) Innovative Business Education Design for 21st Century Learning. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Ohsawa Y (2006) Scenario Maps on Situational Switch Model, Applied to Blood-Test Data for Hepatitis C Patients. In: Ohsawa Y, Tsumoto S (eds) Chance Discoveries in Real World Decision Making: Data-based Interaction of Human Intelligence and Artificial Intelligence. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 69–81

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for WIRTSCHAFTSINFORMATIK.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) What Happens When You Throw Liquid Nitrogen and Dry Ice in a Pool? In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1987) Federal Research: Effectiveness of Small Business Innovation Research Program Procedures. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gaete DO (2009) Investigation of intuitive eating after intervention measured by the Intuitive Eating Scale. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Novick SM (2015) Reaching Across the Menu Divide. New York Times LI8

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hemley 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Hemley 2000; Hugall and Stuart-Fox 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hugall and Stuart-Fox 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Huang et al. 2014)

About the journal

ISSN (print)0937-6429
ISSN (online)1861-8936

Other styles