How to format your references using the WIRTSCHAFTSINFORMATIK citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for WIRTSCHAFTSINFORMATIK. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Irion R (2000) ASTROPHYSICS: Astronomers Spot Their First Carbon Bomb. Science 290:1279
A journal article with 2 authors
Rignot E, Kanagaratnam P (2006) Changes in the velocity structure of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Science 311:986–990
A journal article with 3 authors
Lee LH, Yang H, Bigras G (2014) Current breast cancer proliferative markers correlate variably based on decoupled duration of cell cycle phases. Sci Rep 4:5122
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Williams JA, Su HS, Bernards A, et al (2001) A circadian output in Drosophila mediated by neurofibromatosis-1 and Ras/MAPK. Science 293:2251–2256

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tagare DM (2011) Electric Power Generation. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Hirose A, Ozawa S, Doya K, et al (eds) (2016) Neural Information Processing: 23rd International Conference, ICONIP 2016, Kyoto, Japan, October 16–21, 2016, Proceedings, Part I. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Hassmén P, Keegan R, Piggott D (2016) Research Paradigms, Methodologies and Methods. In: Keegan R, Piggott D (eds) Rethinking Sport and Exercise Psychology Research: Past, Present and Future. Palgrave Macmillan UK, London, pp 105–129

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for WIRTSCHAFTSINFORMATIK.

Blog post
Davis J (2015) Discovery Of New Biomarkers Could Lead To Earlier Detection Of Pancreatic Cancer. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1976) Basic Educational Opportunity Grant Program. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Vlajic NA (2014) Dynamics of slender, flexible structures. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Seth Mydans; Erin, Sophia Kishkovsky contributed reporting for this article (2004) Moscow’s Gloom Deepens As Fear Becomes Routine. New York Times A8

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Irion 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Irion 2000; Rignot and Kanagaratnam 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rignot and Kanagaratnam 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Williams et al. 2001)

About the journal

ISSN (print)0937-6429
ISSN (online)1861-8936

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