How to format your references using the Asia-Pacific Science Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Asia-Pacific Science Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bankaitis, V. A. (2002). Cell biology. Slick recruitment to the Golgi. Science (New York, N.Y.), 295(5553), 290–291.
A journal article with 2 authors
Christensen, J. H., & Christensen, O. B. (2003). Climate modelling: Severe summertime flooding in Europe. Nature, 421(6925), 805–806.
A journal article with 3 authors
Matter, N., Herrlich, P., & König, H. (2002). Signal-dependent regulation of splicing via phosphorylation of Sam68. Nature, 420(6916), 691–695.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Kumar, K. A., Sano, G.-I., Boscardin, S., Nussenzweig, R. S., Nussenzweig, M. C., Zavala, F., & Nussenzweig, V. (2006). The circumsporozoite protein is an immunodominant protective antigen in irradiated sporozoites. Nature, 444(7121), 937–940.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cherian, A. (2015). Energy and Global Climate Change. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Blondel, P. (2007). Buried Waste in the Seabed—Acoustic Imaging and Bio-toxicity: Results from the European SITAR Project. (A. Caiti, Ed.). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Fazli, S., Suk, H.-I., Lee, S.-W., & Müller, K.-R. (2015). Multifrequency Analysis of Brain-Computer Interfaces. In S.-W. Lee, H. H. Bülthoff, & K.-R. Müller (Eds.), Recent Progress in Brain and Cognitive Engineering (pp. 49–60). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Asia-Pacific Science Education.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, October 3). Satellites Reveal Previously Unknown Seafloor Features. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1993). Federally Funded Research: Controlling Inappropriate Access to Research Results (No. T-RCED-93-19). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Baciu, A. B. (2010). Biopolitics and the influenza pandemics of 1918 and 2009 in the United States: Power, immunity, and the law (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Detrick, B. (2017, May 23). Busy P Surveys the Paris Party Scene He Defined. New York Times, p. D6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bankaitis 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Bankaitis 2002; Christensen and Christensen 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Christensen and Christensen 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Kumar et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleAsia-Pacific Science Education
ISSN (online)2364-1177

Other styles