How to format your references using the Asia-Pacific Science Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Asia-Pacific Science Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pan, H. (2014). Magnetic and electronic evolutions of hydrogenated VTe₂ monolayer under tension. Scientific reports, 4, 7524.
A journal article with 2 authors
Malik, S., & Roeder, R. G. (2013). Biochemistry. Have your PIC! Science (New York, N.Y.), 342(6159), 706–707.
A journal article with 3 authors
Curry, R., Dickson, B., & Yashayaev, I. (2003). A change in the freshwater balance of the Atlantic Ocean over the past four decades. Nature, 426(6968), 826–829.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Jaswal, S. S., Sohl, J. L., Davis, J. H., & Agard, D. A. (2002). Energetic landscape of alpha-lytic protease optimizes longevity through kinetic stability. Nature, 415(6869), 343–346.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Speight, J. G. (2014). Handbook of Petroleum Product Analysis. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Hu, B., Liu, J., Chen, L., & Zhong, N. (Eds.). (2011). Brain Informatics: International Conference, BI 2011, Lanzhou, China, September 7-9, 2011. Proceedings (Vol. 6889). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Mainland, B. J., & Shulman, K. I. (2013). Clock Drawing Test. In A. J. Larner (Ed.), Cognitive Screening Instruments: A Practical Approach (pp. 79–109). London: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Asia-Pacific Science Education.

Blog post
Taub, B. (2016, May 25). Huge Variation In Rattlesnake Venom Reveals Intense Arms Race Against Squirrels. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2011). National Aeronautics and Space Administration: Acquisition Approach for Commercial Crew Transportation Includes Good Practices, but Faces Significant Challenges (No. GAO-12-282). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cong, M. (2017). A Comparative Analysis of Acculturative Stress Among Mainland Chinese and Taiwanese International Students at a Hispanic Serving University (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shear, M. D., & Haberman, M. (2017, June 13). Friend Suggests Trump May Fire Special Counsel. New York Times, p. A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Pan 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Malik and Roeder 2013; Pan 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Malik and Roeder 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Jaswal et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleAsia-Pacific Science Education
ISSN (online)2364-1177

Other styles