How to format your references using the Asia-Pacific Science Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Asia-Pacific Science Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Segalman, R. A. (2008). Materials science. Directing self-assembly toward perfection. Science (New York, N.Y.), 321(5891), 919–920.
A journal article with 2 authors
Maechler, P., & Wollheim, C. B. (2001). Mitochondrial function in normal and diabetic beta-cells. Nature, 414(6865), 807–812.
A journal article with 3 authors
Stratton, M. R., Campbell, P. J., & Futreal, P. A. (2009). The cancer genome. Nature, 458(7239), 719–724.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Murakami, A., Miyashita, H., Iseki, M., Adachi, K., & Mimuro, M. (2004). Chlorophyll d in an epiphytic cyanobacterium of red algae. Science (New York, N.Y.), 303(5664), 1633.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Olsen, D. (2015). The Lean Product Playbook. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Gero, J. S. (Ed.). (2014). Design Computing and Cognition ’12. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Al Obaidani, S., Al-Abri, M., & Al-Rawahi, N. (2015). Achieving the Zero-Liquid-Discharge Target Using the Integrated Membrane System for Seawater Desalination. In M. Baawain, B. S. Choudri, M. Ahmed, & A. Purnama (Eds.), Recent Progress in Desalination, Environmental and Marine Outfall Systems (pp. 53–72). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Asia-Pacific Science Education.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, August 4). Transplanted Neural Stem Cells Successfully Integrate Into The Brain. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2007). Higher Education: Challenges in Attracting International Students to the United States and Implications for Global Competitiveness (No. GAO-07-1047T). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bustillo, M. F. (2010). Heart and Art: Post-adoption program: A grant proposal (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Peters, J. F., Nikas, J., & Lyons, E. (2017, September 9). Youth in San Diego: Skateboards, Beach Hangs and Chicano Culture. New York Times, p. ST4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Segalman 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Maechler and Wollheim 2001; Segalman 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Maechler and Wollheim 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Murakami et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleAsia-Pacific Science Education
ISSN (online)2364-1177

Other styles