How to format your references using the Asia-Pacific Science Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Asia-Pacific Science Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kociak, M. (2015). Microscopy: Quantum control of free electrons. Nature, 521(7551), 166–167.
A journal article with 2 authors
Freeman, R. B., & Huang, W. (2014). Collaboration: Strength in diversity. Nature, 513(7518), 305.
A journal article with 3 authors
Surdutovich, E., Yakubovich, A. V., & Solov’yov, A. V. (2013). Biodamage via shock waves initiated by irradiation with ions. Scientific reports, 3, 1289.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Fellay, J., Thompson, A. J., Ge, D., Gumbs, C. E., Urban, T. J., Shianna, K. V., et al. (2010). ITPA gene variants protect against anaemia in patients treated for chronic hepatitis C. Nature, 464(7287), 405–408.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Potter, L. (2012). The Life of William Shakespeare. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Wüthrich, M. V. (2013). Financial Modeling, Actuarial Valuation and Solvency in Insurance. (M. Merz, Ed.). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Casadiego, J., & Timme, M. (2015). Network Dynamics as an Inverse Problem. In D. Mugnolo (Ed.), Mathematical Technology of Networks: Bielefeld, December 2013 (pp. 39–48). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Asia-Pacific Science Education.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, May 28). Found: Our 3m-Year-Old Forebear Who Lived Alongside ‘Lucy.’ IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1999). Direct Student Loans: Overpayments During the Department of Education’s Conversion to a New Payment System (No. HEHS-99-44R). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Magner, K. A. (2010). Evaluation of admissions criteria and practices with regards to successful online learning styles and characteristics (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2011, March 17). Walker and UConn a Long Way From One-and-Done. New York Times, p. B20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kociak 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Freeman and Huang 2014; Kociak 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Freeman and Huang 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Fellay et al. 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleAsia-Pacific Science Education
ISSN (online)2364-1177

Other styles