How to format your references using the Asia-Pacific Science Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Asia-Pacific Science Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brown, G. C. (2003). Cell biology. NO says yes to mitochondria. Science (New York, N.Y.), 299(5608), 838–839.
A journal article with 2 authors
Merritt, S., & Clauset, A. (2013). Environmental structure and competitive scoring advantages in team competitions. Scientific reports, 3, 3067.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tynan, C. T., DeMaster, D. P., & Peterson, W. T. (2001). Endangered right whales on the southeastern Bering Sea shelf. Science (New York, N.Y.), 294(5548), 1894.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Reiners, P. W., Ehlers, T. A., Mitchell, S. G., & Montgomery, D. R. (2003). Coupled spatial variations in precipitation and long-term erosion rates across the Washington Cascades. Nature, 426(6967), 645–647.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hecht, J. (2008). Understanding Lasers. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Burkhardt, C. E. (2006). Topics in Atomic Physics. (J. J. Leventhal, Ed.). New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Valeta, T. (2010). Historical Aspects of Epilepsy: Overview. In C. P. Panayiotopoulos (Ed.), Atlas of Epilepsies (pp. 23–25). London: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Asia-Pacific Science Education.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2016, November 18). Astronomers Have Discovered A New Nearby Super-Earth. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1998). Space Exploration: Power Sources for Deep Space Probes (No. NSIAD-98-102). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Larson, S. E. (2014). A case of rational irrationality: Evidence of expressive interest bias in state e-commerce sales and use tax legislation (Doctoral dissertation). Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L. (2007, March 25). Brookhaven Lab Avoids Cuts in Budget. New York Times, p. LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Brown 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Brown 2003; Merritt and Clauset 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Merritt and Clauset 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Reiners et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleAsia-Pacific Science Education
ISSN (online)2364-1177

Other styles