How to format your references using the Headache citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Headache. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mitchell K. Journal club. A neurodevelopmental geneticist explores how one mutation can lead to multiple diseases. Nature. 2010 Apr 22;464(7292):1107.
A journal article with 2 authors
Thornton A, McAuliffe K. Teaching in wild meerkats. Science. 2006 Jul 14;313(5784):227–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Korswagen HC, Herman MA, Clevers HC. Distinct beta-catenins mediate adhesion and signalling functions in C. elegans. Nature. 2000 Aug 3;406(6795):527–32.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Whistler JL, Enquist J, Marley A, Fong J, Gladher F, Tsuruda P, et al. Modulation of postendocytic sorting of G protein-coupled receptors. Science. 2002 Jul 26;297(5581):615–20.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Yaacoub EE, Dawy Z. Resource Allocation in Uplink OFDMA Wireless Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
Gil Chaves ID. Process Analysis and Simulation in Chemical Engineering. 1st ed. 2016. López JRG, García Zapata JL, Leguizamón Robayo A, Rodríguez Niño G, editors. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. XVIII, 523 p. 498 illus., 426 illus. in color.
A chapter in an edited book
Bronkhorst AJ, Wentzel JF, Aucamp J, van Dyk E, du Plessis LH, Pretorius PJ. An Enquiry Concerning the Characteristics of Cell-Free DNA Released by Cultured Cancer Cells. In: Gahan PB, Fleischhacker M, Schmidt B, editors. Circulating Nucleic Acids in Serum and Plasma – CNAPS IX. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 19–24. (Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Headache.

Blog post
Hamilton K. Ancient Asteroid Impacts Yield Evidence For The Nature Of The Early Earth. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Aviation Security: Long-Standing Problems Impair Airport Screeners’ Performance. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2000 Jun. Report No.: RCED-00-75.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Allyasin F. Low-cost frequency-domain methods of ruby fluorescence lifetime measurements [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky S. Muscovites Replace “This Old House” With “Changing Rooms.” New York Times. 2003 Oct 12;92.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleHeadache
ISSN (print)0017-8748
ISSN (online)1526-4610
ScopeClinical Neurology

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