How to format your references using the Headache citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Headache. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Helliwell JR. Biochemistry. How to solve protein structures with an X-ray laser. Science. 2013 Jan 11;339(6116):146–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Crompton RH, Pataky TC. Anthropology. Stepping out. Science. 2009 Feb 27;323(5918):1174–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cysouw M, Dediu D, Moran S. Comment on “Phonemic diversity supports a serial founder effect model of language expansion from Africa.” Science. 2012 Feb 10;335(6069):657; author reply 657.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Meltzoff AN, Kuhl PK, Movellan J, Sejnowski TJ. Foundations for a new science of learning. Science. 2009 Jul 17;325(5938):284–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zhong Q-C, Hornik T. Control of Power Inverters in Renewable Energy and Smart Grid Integration. Chichester, West Sussex, United Kingdom: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.; 2012.
An edited book
Aerts C. Asteroseismology. Christensen-Dalsgaard J, Kurtz DW, editors. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2010. XVI, 866 p. (Astronomy and Astrophysics Library).
A chapter in an edited book
Rizza GB. Teoria Delle Funzioni Monogene Nelle Algebre Complesse Commutative Dotate Di Modulo. In: Bompiani E, editor. Analisi Funzionale. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. p. 189–98.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Headache.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. This Robotic Assassin Will Hunt And Kill Starfish That Are Destroying The Great Barrier Reef. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Hispanic Employment Statistics. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1996 Jun. Report No.: GGD-96-85R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Visweswaran K. Face Recognition Technique for Blurred/Unclear Images [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chen DW. Remembering a SEALs Parachutist Who ‘Lived Life to the Fullest.’ New York Times. 2017 May 31;A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleHeadache
ISSN (print)0017-8748
ISSN (online)1526-4610
ScopeClinical Neurology

Other styles