How to format your references using the Headache citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Headache. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Seeman N. Use data to challenge mental-health stigma. Nature. 2015 Dec 17;528(7582):309.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Chouard T, Venema L. Machine intelligence. Nature. 2015 May 28;521(7553):435.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Markos C, Kubat I, Bang O. Hybrid polymer photonic crystal fiber with integrated chalcogenide glass nanofilms. Sci Rep. 2014 Aug 14;4:6057.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Bininda-Emonds ORP, Cardillo M, Jones KE, MacPhee RDE, Beck RMD, Grenyer R, et al. The delayed rise of present-day mammals. Nature. 2007 Mar 29;446(7135):507–12.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Firth-Cozens J, Harrison J. How to Survive in Medicine. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2010.
An edited book
1.
Huang D-S, Jo K-H, Lee H-H, Kang H-J, Bevilacqua V, editors. Emerging Intelligent Computing Technology and Applications. With Aspects of Artificial Intelligence: 5th International Conference on Intelligent Computing, ICIC 2009 Ulsan, South Korea, September 16-19, 2009 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009. XXIII, 1120 p. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science; vol. 5755).
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Huneman P. Selection. In: Heams T, Huneman P, Lecointre G, Silberstein M, editors. Handbook of Evolutionary Thinking in the Sciences. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2015. p. 37–76.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Headache.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E. Watch This Week’s Total Solar Eclipse Live [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/space/live-stream-total-solar-eclipse/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. NASA Procurement: Challenges Remain in Implementing Improvement Reforms. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994 Aug. Report No.: NSIAD-94-179.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Lancelin DB. A Phenomenological Case Study of Teacher Experiences with and Understanding of Instruction Aligned to the CCSS, and their Role in Advancing Equal Educational Opportunities for Students [Doctoral dissertation]. [ Lafayette, LA]: University of Louisiana; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Billard M. A Personal Quest For a White Shirt. New York Times. 2013 Oct 6;E7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleHeadache
AbbreviationHeadache
ISSN (print)0017-8748
ISSN (online)1526-4610
ScopeClinical Neurology
Neurology

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