How to format your references using the Headache citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Headache. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Padma TV. Ayurveda. Nature. 2005 Jul 28;436(7050):486.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wilberg MJ, Miller TJ. Comment on “Impacts of biodiversity loss on ocean ecosystem services.” Science. 2007 Jun 1;316(5829):1285; author reply 1285.
A journal article with 3 authors
Frank MJ, Seeberger LC, O’reilly RC. By carrot or by stick: cognitive reinforcement learning in parkinsonism. Science. 2004 Dec 10;306(5703):1940–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Strano MS, Dyke CA, Usrey ML, Barone PW, Allen MJ, Shan H, et al. Electronic structure control of single-walled carbon nanotube functionalization. Science. 2003 Sep 12;301(5639):1519–22.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Todinov M. Reliability and Risk Models. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
Perales FJ, Kittler J, editors. Articulated Motion and Deformable Objects: 9th International Conference, AMDO 2016, Palma de Mallorca, Spain, July 13-15, 2016, Proceedings. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. XII, 219 p. 91 illus. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science; vol. 9756).
A chapter in an edited book
Tzartzanis N. Exploiting Inductance. In: Xanthopoulos T, editor. Clocking in Modern VLSI Systems. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2009. p. 105–37. (Integrated Circuits and Systems).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Headache.

Blog post
Carpineti A. Mercury Is Being Bombarded With Meteors. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Environmental Protection Agency: Control of Air Pollution From New Motor Vehicles--Tier 2 Motor Vehicle Emissions Standards and Gasoline Sulfur Control Requirements. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2000 Feb. Report No.: OGC-00-22.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
France KA. Triadic Supervision: An Exploration of Supervisors’ Perceptions, Experiences and Practices [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly M. THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: Undeclared Candidate; Where Perot Exhibits A Lifetime of Memories. New York Times. 1992 Jun 20;18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleHeadache
ISSN (print)0017-8748
ISSN (online)1526-4610
ScopeClinical Neurology

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