How to format your references using the Headache citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Headache. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Akimoto H. Global air quality and pollution. Science. 2003 Dec 5;302(5651):1716–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Feuillet C, Eversole K. Plant science. Solving the maze. Science. 2009 Nov 20;326(5956):1071–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tellis JC, Primer DN, Molander GA. Dual catalysis. Single-electron transmetalation in organoboron cross-coupling by photoredox/nickel dual catalysis. Science. 2014 Jul 25;345(6195):433–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Dunn RA, Toomey DR, Detrick RS, Wilcock WS. Continuous mantle melt supply beneath an overlapping spreading center on the East Pacific Rise. Science. 2001 Mar 9;291(5510):1955–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Laster B. Professional Git®. Indianapolis, IN, USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
Luch A, editor. Molecular, Clinical and Environmental Toxicology: Volume 3: Environmental Toxicology. Basel: Springer; 2012. XII, 574 p. 46 illus., 8 illus. in color. (Experientia Supplementum; vol. 101).
A chapter in an edited book
Haynes TW. All My Favorite Conjectures Are Critical. In: Gera R, Hedetniemi S, Larson C, editors. Graph Theory: Favorite Conjectures and Open Problems - 1. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 63–82. (Problem Books in Mathematics).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Headache.

Blog post
Andrew E. Solar Cells Just A Few Atoms Thick Could Be Possible With New Material [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Activities of the National Institute of Education, Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1974 Jul. Report No.: B-164031(1).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Keep AW. A nanopass framework for commercial compiler development [Doctoral dissertation]. [Bloomington, IN]: Indiana University; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McKINLEY JC Jr. New York City Scraps 644,000 Old Warrants for Minor Offenses. New York Times. 2017 Aug 10;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleHeadache
ISSN (print)0017-8748
ISSN (online)1526-4610
ScopeClinical Neurology

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