How to format your references using the Wind Energy Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Wind Energy Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zala, K.: Careers in behavioral science. Public opinion research: measuring happiness, Science, 316, 1060–1061, 2007.
A journal article with 2 authors
Skovran, E. and Martinez-Gomez, N. C.: Microbiology. Just add lanthanides, Science, 348, 862–863, 2015.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cook, D. J., Teves, L., and Tymianski, M.: Treatment of stroke with a PSD-95 inhibitor in the gyrencephalic primate brain, Nature, 483, 213–217, 2012.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Hoffman, N., Knauth, L. P., Klonowski, S., Burt, D., Saunders, R. S., Zurek, R. W., Doran, P. T., and Forman, S. L.: Ideas about the surface runoff features on Mars, Science, 290, 711c–4c, 2000.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kindmann, R. and Krüger, U.: Stahlbau, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany, 2013.
An edited book
Gao, Y. (Ed.): Urine Proteomics in Kidney Disease Biomarker Discovery, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, XIII, 203 p. 25 illus., 10 illus. in color pp., 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Ning, L., Setsompop, K., Michailovich, O., Makris, N., Westin, C.-F., and Rathi, Y.: A Compressed-Sensing Approach for Super-Resolution Reconstruction of Diffusion MRI, in: Information Processing in Medical Imaging: 24th International Conference, IPMI 2015, Sabhal Mor Ostaig, Isle of Skye, UK, June 28 - July 3, 2015, Proceedings, edited by: Ourselin, S., Alexander, D. C., Westin, C.-F., and Cardoso, M. J., Springer International Publishing, Cham, 57–68, 2015.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Wind Energy Science.

Blog post
Amazing GIF Shows What It Would Look Like If The Orion Nebula Was Only 4 Light Years Away:, last access: 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Reduction in Demonstration Project Funding, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1996.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Haneef, N. J.: A synthesized conceptual framework for the design of user interfaces of interactive information products, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M.: New York Mulls New Bid, New York Times, 15th May, B14, 2014.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Zala, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Zala, 2007; Skovran and Martinez-Gomez, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Skovran and Martinez-Gomez, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Hoffman et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleWind Energy Science
ISSN (print)2366-7443
ISSN (online)2366-7451

Other styles