How to format your references using the Wind Energy Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Wind Energy Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Heikkilä, T. T.: Physics. Cold-atom thermoelectrics, Science, 342(6159), 703–704, 2013.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jones, J. H. and Handcock, M. S.: Social networks: Sexual contacts and epidemic thresholds, Nature, 423(6940), 605–6; discussion 606, 2003.
A journal article with 3 authors
Meylan, E., Tschopp, J. and Karin, M.: Intracellular pattern recognition receptors in the host response, Nature, 442(7098), 39–44, 2006.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Naqvi, S. W., Jayakumar, D. A., Narvekar, P. V., Naik, H., Sarma, V. V., D’Souza, W., Joseph, S. and George, M. D.: Increased marine production of N2O due to intensifying anoxia on the Indian continental shelf, Nature, 408(6810), 346–349, 2000.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lemberger, P. and Morel, M.: Managing Complexity of Information Systems, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ USA., 2012.
An edited book
Şakar, O., Ed.: Removable Partial Dentures: A Practitioners’ Manual, 1st ed. 2016., Springer International Publishing, Cham., 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Hillmert, S.: Traditional Inequalities and New Insecurities: Long-Term Trends in the Transition to the Labor Market in Germany, in A Young Generation Under Pressure?: The Financial Situation and the “Rush Hour” of the Cohorts 1970–1985 in a Generational Comparison, edited by J. Tremmel, pp. 57–76, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg., 2010.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Wind Energy Science.

Blog post
Luntz, S.: New Evidence Suggests Earth Has Vast Subterranean Oceans, IFLScience, 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Software Reuse: Major Issues Need to Be Resolved Before Benefits Can Be Achieved, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC., 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Villagomez, G. C.: Helping Foster Parents and Kinship Caregivers Support High School Graduation for Children in Their Care: A Self-Instructional Workbook, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA., 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rotella, C.: LaMotta: More Than ‘Raging,’ New York Times, 21st September, A27, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Heikkilä, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Heikkilä, 2013; Jones and Handcock, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jones and Handcock, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Naqvi et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleWind Energy Science
ISSN (print)2366-7443
ISSN (online)2366-7451

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