How to format your references using the Wind Energy Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Wind Energy Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jensen, M. H.: Obituary: Per Bak (1947-2002), Nature, 420, 284, 2002.
A journal article with 2 authors
Holland, W. L. and Scherer, P. E.: Cell Biology. Ronning after the adiponectin receptors, Science, 342, 1460–1461, 2013.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhang, Z., Huang, X., and Lu, H.: Association between red blood cell transfusion and bronchopulmonary dysplasia in preterm infants, Sci. Rep., 4, 4340, 2014.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Akahane, K., Yonai, S., Fukuda, S., Miyahara, N., Yasuda, H., Iwaoka, K., Matsumoto, M., Fukumura, A., and Akashi, M.: NIRS external dose estimation system for Fukushima residents after the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP accident, Sci. Rep., 3, 1670, 2013.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dods, R. F.: Understanding Diabetes, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2013.
An edited book
Mertins, K., Jardim-Gonçalves, R., Popplewell, K., and Mendonça, J. P. (Eds.): Enterprise Interoperability VII: Enterprise Interoperability in the Digitized and Networked Factory of the Future, Springer International Publishing, Cham, XIV, 344 p. 104 illus., 87 illus. in color pp., 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Singh, M. K., Kumar, H., Gupta, M. P., and Madaan, J.: The Social Media Cone: Towards Achieving the Manufacturing Competitiveness Goals, in: Social Media: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly: 15th IFIP WG 6.11 Conference on e-Business, e-Services, and e-Society, I3E 2016, Swansea, UK, September 13–15, 2016, Proceedings, edited by: Dwivedi, Y. K., Mäntymäki, M., Ravishankar, M. N., Janssen, M., Clement, M., Slade, E. L., Rana, N. P., Al-Sharhan, S., and Simintiras, A. C., Springer International Publishing, Cham, 53–58, 2016.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Wind Energy Science.

Blog post
Sauropods’ Tooth-Like Backbones May Have Helped Them Grow Long Necks:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Transportation Security Research: Coordination Needed in Selecting and Implementing Infrastructure Vulnerability Assessments, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2003.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Clément, V.: From Adaptation to Transformation: A Resilience Perspective on Organizational Responses to Ecological Adversity, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Clarey, C.: American Contingent’s Strength Is in Numbers, and Youth, New York Times, 18th January, B9, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Jensen, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Jensen, 2002; Holland and Scherer, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Holland and Scherer, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Akahane et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleWind Energy Science
ISSN (print)2366-7443
ISSN (online)2366-7451

Other styles