How to format your references using the Wind Energy Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Wind Energy Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wright, G. D.: Biochemistry. A new target for antibiotic development, Science, 315, 1373–1374, 2007.
A journal article with 2 authors
Deschenes, L. A. and Vanden Bout, D. A.: Single-molecule studies of heterogeneous dynamics in polymer melts near the glass transition, Science, 292, 255–258, 2001.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ivany, L. C., Patterson, W. P., and Lohmann, K. C.: Cooler winters as a possible cause of mass extinctions at the Eocene/Oligocene boundary, Nature, 407, 887–890, 2000.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Whitlock, J. R., Heynen, A. J., Shuler, M. G., and Bear, M. F.: Learning induces long-term potentiation in the hippocampus, Science, 313, 1093–1097, 2006.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Padgett, S.: Profiling the Fraudster, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ, 2014.
An edited book
Olivi, G. and Olivi, M. (Eds.): Lasers in Restorative Dentistry: A Practical Guide, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, XV, 274 p. 596 illus., 511 illus. in color pp., 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Ordóñez, A.: A New Set of Questions: ICT4D Research and Policy, in: Impact of Information Society Research in the Global South, edited by: Chib, A., May, J., and Barrantes, R., Springer, Singapore, 63–82, 2015.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Wind Energy Science.

Blog post
Could This New Clock Redefine The Length Of A Second?, last access: 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Computer-Based Patient Records: Subcommittee Questions Concerning VA and DOD Efforts to Achieve a Two-Way Exchange of Health Data, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2004.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bonilla, E.: Parental Employment Status and Child Feeding Practices Among African American and Latina Adolescent Girls, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario, B.: A New Club in Brooklyn, as Promoter Rocks On, New York Times, 5th December, C1, 2016.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wright, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Wright, 2007; Deschenes and Vanden Bout, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Deschenes and Vanden Bout, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Whitlock et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleWind Energy Science
ISSN (print)2366-7443
ISSN (online)2366-7451

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