How to format your references using the Efficacy and Mechanism Evaluation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Efficacy and Mechanism Evaluation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Barry CE. Tuberculosis: Drug discovery goes au naturel. Nature 2014;506:436–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ramesh R, Schlom DG. Materials science. Orienting ferroelectric films. Science 2002;296:1975–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ganguly-Fitzgerald I, Donlea J, Shaw PJ. Waking experience affects sleep need in Drosophila. Science 2006;313:1775–81.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kashlinsky A, Arendt RG, Mather J, Moseley SH. Tracing the first stars with fluctuations of the cosmic infrared background. Nature 2005;438:45–50.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Flaus J-M. Risk Analysis. Hoboken, NJ USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
Hãkansson A, Hartung R, Nguyen NT, editors. Agent and Multi-agent Technology for Internet and Enterprise Systems. vol. 289. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
O’Donoghue T, Harford J. Secondary School Education in Schools of the Irish Christian Brothers in Ireland, 1922–1962. In: Harford J, editor. Secondary School Education in Ireland: History, Memories and Life Stories, 1922–1967. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK; 2016. p. 55–86.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Efficacy and Mechanism Evaluation.

Blog post
Andrew E. Loss of Y Chromosome Increases Risk for Cancer and Early Death. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014. URL: (Accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Schools And Libraries Program: Actions Taken to Improve Operational Procedures Prior to Committing Funds. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Howard-Skipper J. Leadership that promotes teacher empowerment among urban middle school science teachers. Doctoral dissertation, Minneapolis, MN: Capella University; 2014; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley B. A Prince’s Kingdom is Scattered to the Winds. New York Times 2017:C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleEfficacy and Mechanism Evaluation
AbbreviationEffic. Mech. Eval.
ISSN (print)2050-4365
ISSN (online)2050-4373

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