How to format your references using the Efficacy and Mechanism Evaluation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Efficacy and Mechanism Evaluation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bascompte J. Disentangling the web of life. Science 2009;325:416–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Enyeart PJ, Ellington AD. Synthetic biology: a yeast for all reasons. Nature 2011;477:413–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
DeBose JL, Lema SC, Nevitt GA. Dimethylsulfoniopropionate as a foraging cue for reef fishes. Science 2008;319:1356.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Hu Q-H, Liu R-J, Fang Z-P, Zhang J, Ding Y-Y, Tan M, et al. Discovery of a potent benzoxaborole-based anti-pneumococcal agent targeting leucyl-tRNA synthetase. Sci Rep 2013;3:2475.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Acharya VV, Cooley TF, Richardson M, Walter I. Regulating Wall Street. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Guthoff R, Katowitz J, editors. Oculoplastics and Orbit. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Sanz R, Bermejo J, López I, Gómez J. A Real-Time Agent System Perspective of Meaning and Sapience. In: Mayorga RV, Perlovsky LI, editors. Toward Artificial Sapience: Principles and Methods for Wise Systems. London: Springer; 2008. p. 61–73.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Efficacy and Mechanism Evaluation.

Blog post
Andrew E. Chandra X-ray Observatory Turns 15!. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014. URL: (Accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Organization Conflict of Interest. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1976.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Moreau GA. Touch and psychotherapy: A journey to the depths of the unconscious and back again. Doctoral dissertation, Carpinteria, CA: Pacifica Graduate Institute; 2009; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
de la MERCED MJ, Abrams R. Abercrombie & Fitch in Talks to Sell Itself. New York Times 2017:B5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleEfficacy and Mechanism Evaluation
AbbreviationEffic. Mech. Eval.
ISSN (print)2050-4365
ISSN (online)2050-4373

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