How to format your references using the Efficacy and Mechanism Evaluation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Efficacy and Mechanism Evaluation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1
Smaglik P. Baywatch: San Francisco. Nature 2004;427:658–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
1
Schaefer BE, Pagnotta A. An absence of ex-companion stars in the type Ia supernova remnant SNR 0509-67.5. Nature 2012;481:164–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
1
Solter LF, Kyei-Poku GK, Johny S. Comment on ‘Invasive harlequin ladybird carries biological weapons against native competitors’. Science 2013;341:1342.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1
Tzoneva G, Dieck CL, Oshima K, Ambesi-Impiombato A, Sánchez-Martín M, Madubata CJ, et al. Clonal evolution mechanisms in NT5C2 mutant-relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Nature 2018;553:511–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1
Neuber A, Nuttall T. Diagnostic Techniques in Veterinary Dermatology. Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2017.
An edited book
1
Fernandes I, Ribeiro M dos A, Broekmans MATM, Sims I, editors. Petrographic Atlas: Characterisation of Aggregates Regarding Potential Reactivity to Alkalis: RILEM TC 219-ACS Recommended Guidance AAR-1.2, for Use with the RILEM AAR-1.1 Petrographic Examination Method. 1st ed. 2016. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1
Miti L, Matatu S. Role of Legislation for Social Accountability: A Comparison of South Africa and Zambia. In: Mudacumura G, Morçöl G, editors. Challenges to Democratic Governance in Developing Countries. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. p. 57–71.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Efficacy and Mechanism Evaluation.

Blog post
1
Andrew E. Discovery Of Microbe-Rich Groundwater In Antarctica Could Guide Our Search For Life In Space. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015. URL: https://www.iflscience.com/environment/discovery-microbe-rich-groundwater-antarctica-could-guide-our-search-life-space/ (Accessed 30 October 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1
Government Accountability Office. DOD Business Systems Modernization: Improvements to Enterprise Architecture Development and Implementation Efforts Needed. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2003.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1
Rogers S. Teacher Induction Programs: How Key Components Influence Teacher Retention Rates in Rural School Districts. Doctoral dissertation, St. Charles, MO: Lindenwood University; 2014; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1
Gustines GG. Hey, Archie! Want to Build An Empire? New York Times 2010:BU1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleEfficacy and Mechanism Evaluation
AbbreviationEffic. Mech. Eval.
ISSN (print)2050-4365
ISSN (online)2050-4373
Scope

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