How to format your references using the Asia Pacific Journal of Social Work and Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Asia Pacific Journal of Social Work and Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Alexander, M. H. (2011). Chemistry. Chemical kinetics under test. Science (New York, N.Y.), 331(6016), 411–412.
A journal article with 2 authors
Komatsu, T., & Itino, T. (2014). Moth caterpillar solicits for homopteran honeydew. Scientific Reports, 4, 3922.
A journal article with 3 authors
Padhi, A. K., Jayaram, B., & Gomes, J. (2013). Prediction of functional loss of human angiogenin mutants associated with ALS by molecular dynamics simulations. Scientific Reports, 3, 1225.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Zanin, M., Alcazar, J. M., Carbajosa, J. V., Paez, M. G., Papo, D., Sousa, P., … Boccaletti, S. (2014). Parenclitic networks: uncovering new functions in biological data. Scientific Reports, 4, 5112.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Prager, F. H., & Rosteck, H. (2006). Polyurethane and Fire. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Wu, X., Clark, A., & Campanelli, M. (Eds.). (2006). Hadron Collider Physics 2005: Proceedings of the 1st Hadron Collider Physics Symposium, Les Diablerets, Switzerland, July 4-9, 2005 (Vol. 108). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Termini, S., & Tabacchi, M. E. (2013). Specificities and Vagaries of Medicine from the Viewpoint of Hard Sciences. In R. Seising & M. E. Tabacchi (Eds.), Fuzziness and Medicine: Philosophical Reflections and Application Systems in Health Care: A Companion Volume to Sadegh-Zadeh’s Handbook of Analytical Philosophy of Medicine (pp. 77–81). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Asia Pacific Journal of Social Work and Development.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, August 6). New Anti-Prion Compound Provides New Hope For Treating Brain-Wasting Disease. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2017). Aviation Research and Development: FAA Could Improve How It Develops Its Portfolio and Reports Its Activities (No. GAO-17-372). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ryan, H. L. (2009). Normalizing happiness: The rhetoric of depression in Direct -to -Consumer advertising (Doctoral dissertation). University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. (2006, September 27). Justices to Hear Case on Use of Union Fees. New York Times, p. A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Alexander, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Alexander, 2011; Komatsu & Itino, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Komatsu & Itino, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Padhi, Jayaram, & Gomes, 2013)
  • 6 or more authors: (Zanin et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleAsia Pacific Journal of Social Work and Development
AbbreviationAsia Pac. J. Soc. Work
ISSN (print)0218-5385
ISSN (online)2165-0993
ScopeSocial Sciences (miscellaneous)

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