How to format your references using the Asia Pacific Journal of Social Work and Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Asia Pacific Journal of Social Work and Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Martínez, J. L. (2008). Antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes in natural environments. Science (New York, N.Y.), 321(5887), 365–367.
A journal article with 2 authors
Skinner, G., & Gorenstein, P. (2003). Astronomy (communication arising): black holes, fleas and microlithography. Nature, 426(6964), 245–246.
A journal article with 3 authors
Agathon, A., Thisse, C., & Thisse, B. (2003). The molecular nature of the zebrafish tail organizer. Nature, 424(6947), 448–452.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Zheng, B., Wu, H., Kuang, L., Qin, J., Du, W., Wang, J., & Li, D. (2014). A simple model clarifies the complicated relationships of complex networks. Scientific Reports, 4, 6197.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kagan, E., & Ben-Gal, I. (2013). Probabilistic Search for Tracking Targets. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Horváth, L. (2012). Inference for Functional Data with Applications (P. Kokoszka, Ed.; Vol. 200). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Simón Mata, A., Bataller Torras, A., Cabrera Carrillo, J. A., Ezquerro Juanco, F., Guerra Fernández, A. J., Nadal Martínez, F., & Ortiz Fernández, A. (2016). Graphical and Analytical Methods for Dynamic Analysis of Planar Linkages. In A. Bataller Torras, J. A. Cabrera Carrillo, F. Ezquerro Juanco, A. J. Guerra Fernández, F. Nadal Martínez, & A. Ortiz Fernández (Eds.), Fundamentals of Machine Theory and Mechanisms (pp. 143–193). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Asia Pacific Journal of Social Work and Development.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, August 12). What Is The Smallest Thing In The Universe? IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2014). Department of Homeland Security: Actions Needed to Strengthen Management of Research and Development (GAO-14-865T). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Caraballo-Cole, T. (2012). Mindfulness-based mental health services for single mothers: A grant proposal [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2010, May 16). Petty Remains Nascar’s Once-and-Always King. New York Times, SP8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Martínez, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Martínez, 2008; Skinner & Gorenstein, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Skinner & Gorenstein, 2003)
  • Three authors: (Agathon et al., 2003)
  • 6 or more authors: (Zheng et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleAsia Pacific Journal of Social Work and Development
AbbreviationAsia Pac. J. Soc. Work
ISSN (print)0218-5385
ISSN (online)2165-0993
ScopeSocial Sciences (miscellaneous)

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