How to format your references using the Western Journal of Emergency Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Western Journal of Emergency Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Haxton W. Neutrino physics: What makes the Sun shine. Nature. 2014;512(7515):378-380.
A journal article with 2 authors
Im SH and Taghert PH. Neuroscience. A CRY to rise. Science. 2011;331(6023):1394-1395.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hoffecker JF, Elias SA, and O’Rourke DH. Anthropology. Out of Beringia? Science. 2014;343(6174):979-980.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Tarduno J, Bunge H-P, Sleep N, et al. The bent Hawaiian-Emperor hotspot track: inheriting the mantle wind. Science. 2009;324(5923):50-53.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Liu S and Liu Y. Modeling and Simulation for Microelectronic Packaging Assembly. Singapore: John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte Ltd; 2011.
An edited book
Shivanna KR. Reproductive Ecology of Flowering Plants: A Manual. (Tandon R, ed.). New Delhi: Springer India; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Mohnhaupt H. The Object of Interpretation: Legislation and Competing Normative Sources of Law in Europe During the 16th to 18th Centuries. In: Morigiwa Y, Stolleis M, Halperin J-L, eds. Interpretation of Law in the Age of Enlightenment: From the Rule of the King to the Rule of Law. Law and Philosophy Library. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2011:61-89.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Western Journal of Emergency Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew E. These Cute Sea Slugs Are The Sheep Of The Sea. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. NASA Management Challenges: Human Capital and Other Critical Areas Need to Be Addressed. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2002.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Murray E. California community college athletic directors lived experience and perceptions about financing issues with athletic programs. 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow L. Guardian Angels Welcome in Greenport. New York Times. July 22, 2006:LI9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleWestern Journal of Emergency Medicine
ISSN (print)1936-900X
ISSN (online)1936-9018

Other styles