How to format your references using the Western Journal of Emergency Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Western Journal of Emergency Medicine (WestJEM). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kamien RD. Physics. Topology from the bottom up. Science. 2003;299(5613):1671-1673.
A journal article with 2 authors
Peck JR and Waxman D. Mutation and sex in a competitive world. Nature. 2000;406(6794):399-404.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lu D, Searles MA, and Klug A. Crystal structure of a zinc-finger-RNA complex reveals two modes of molecular recognition. Nature. 2003;426(6962):96-100.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Trocha P, Karpov M, Ganin D, et al. Ultrafast optical ranging using microresonator soliton frequency combs. Science. 2018;359(6378):887-891.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McCurley L. Professional Rope Access. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2016.
An edited book
Blande JD and Glinwood R, eds. Deciphering Chemical Language of Plant Communication. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Burnett LE and Hoffman A. Insights, Trends, and 360-Degree Marketing. In: Hoffman A, ed. Black Is the New Green: Marketing to Affluent African Americans. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan US; 2010:99-119.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Western Journal of Emergency Medicine.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. SpaceX Just Released An Awesome Video Of Its Reusable Rocket Landing. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Proprietary Schools: Analysis of Comments Received From an Association of Schools. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ponder S. Parent information nights: An elementary school principal’s search to increase parent input and affect the learning-at-home environment. 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon M. At the End, the Telltale Runners’ Bags. New York Times. December 30, 2013:D6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleWestern Journal of Emergency Medicine
ISSN (print)1936-900X
ISSN (online)1936-9018

Other styles