How to format your references using the Western Journal of Emergency Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Western Journal of Emergency Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Metzger TH. Applied physics. Squeezing x-ray photons. Science. 2002;297(5579):205-206.
A journal article with 2 authors
Brei B and Fish D. Comment on “Parasites as a viability cost of sexual selection in natural populations of mammals.” Science. 2003;300(5616):55; author reply 55.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wu B, Parquette JR, and RajanBabu TV. Regiodivergent ring opening of chiral aziridines. Science. 2009;326(5960):1662.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lamming DW, Latorre-Esteves M, Medvedik O, et al. HST2 mediates SIR2-independent life-span extension by calorie restriction. Science. 2005;309(5742):1861-1864.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Desai J. Innovation Engine. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
Cunningham H, Hanbury A, and Rüger S, eds. Advances in Multidisciplinary Retrieval: First Information Retrieval Facility Conference, IRFC 2010, Vienna, Austria, May 31, 2010. Proceedings. Vol 6107. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Filieri R. How Young Chinese Consumers Choose among Different Smartphone Brands: The Importance of Socio-cultural and Marketing Factors. In: Dey B, Sorour K, Filieri R, eds. ICTs in Developing Countries: Research, Practices and Policy Implications. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK; 2016:59-73.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Western Journal of Emergency Medicine.

Blog post
Luntz S. New Breakthrough In Lithium-Oxygen Battery Technology. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Next Generation Air Transportation System: Status of Key Issues Associated with the Transition to NextGen. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2008.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tafoya A. Impact of HIV/AIDS stigma on seropositive Latinos along the United States-Mexico border. 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J. Mets Send Duda to Rays; More Trades May Follow. New York Times. July 27, 2017:B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleWestern Journal of Emergency Medicine
ISSN (print)1936-900X
ISSN (online)1936-9018

Other styles