How to format your references using the Western Journal of Emergency Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Western Journal of Emergency Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chergui M. Chemistry. Controlling biological functions. Science. 2006;313(5791):1246-1247.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dasgupta PS and Ehrlich PR. Pervasive externalities at the population, consumption, and environment nexus. Science. 2013;340(6130):324-328.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kortenkamp SJ, Wetherill GW, and Inaba S. Runaway growth of planetary embryos facilitated by massive bodies in a protoplanetary disk. Science. 2001;293(5532):1127-1129.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Sereno PC, Larsson HC, Sidor CA, et al. The giant crocodyliform Sarcosuchus from the Cretaceous of Africa. Science. 2001;294(5546):1516-1519.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Maude D. Global Private Banking and Wealth Management. Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd; 2006.
An edited book
Korobov V. Chemical Kinetics with Mathcad and Maple. (Ochkov V, ed.). Vienna: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Danezis G and Troncoso C. Vida: How to Use Bayesian Inference to De-anonymize Persistent Communications. In: Goldberg I, Atallah MJ, eds. Privacy Enhancing Technologies: 9th International Symposium, PETS 2009, Seattle, WA, USA, August 5-7, 2009. Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009:56-72.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Western Journal of Emergency Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew D. Humans Are Wired For Prejudice But That Doesn’t Have To Be The End Of The Story. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Financial Management: Federal Aviation Administration Lacked Accountability for Major Assets. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Do NH. An examination of support systems to enable Vietnamese immigrants to acquire English skills. 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley B. A Mythic Force of Anger, Raging in Wales. New York Times. May 17, 2017:C6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleWestern Journal of Emergency Medicine
ISSN (print)1936-900X
ISSN (online)1936-9018

Other styles