How to format your references using the Western Journal of Emergency Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Western Journal of Emergency Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Lorenz R. Planetary science. The glitter of distant seas. Science. 2003;302(5644):403-404.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Furukawa A and Tanaka H. Violation of the incompressibility of liquid by simple shear flow. Nature. 2006;443(7110):434-438.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Aarts DGAL, Schmidt M, and Lekkerkerker HNW. Direct visual observation of thermal capillary waves. Science. 2004;304(5672):847-850.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1.
Barber DL, Wherry EJ, Masopust D, et al. Restoring function in exhausted CD8 T cells during chronic viral infection. Nature. 2006;439(7077):682-687.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Al-Shuhail AA, Al-Dossary SA, and Mousa WA. Seismic Data Interpretation Using Digital Image Processing. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2017.
An edited book
1.
Kwak J, Deng RH, Won Y, et al., eds. Information Security, Practice and Experience: 6th International Conference, ISPEC 2010, Seoul, Korea, May 12-13, 2010. Proceedings. Vol 6047. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Atkinson IAE. Introduced Mammals in a New Environment. In: Allen RB, Lee WG, eds. Biological Invasions in New Zealand. Ecological Studies. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006:49-66.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Western Journal of Emergency Medicine.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E. Scientists have created a blueprint for a prosthetic hand with a sense of touch. IFLScience.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. The Centralizing Effects of Austerity on the Intergovernmental System. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1981.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Farrell DP. Teachers’ Perceptions of How the Use of Peer Evaluation Could Improve Their Teaching Practice. 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Bohlen C. Ancient Georgian Culture, Set to Music. New York Times. June 20, 2017:TR1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleWestern Journal of Emergency Medicine
ISSN (print)1936-900X
ISSN (online)1936-9018
Scope

Other styles