How to format your references using the National Identities citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for National Identities. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Colliex, C. (2012). Materials science. Watching solution growth of nanoparticles in graphene cells. Science (New York, N.Y.), 336(6077), 44–45.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yu, J., & Broecker, W. S. (2010). Comment on “Deep-sea temperature and ice volume changes across the Pliocene-Pleistocene climate transitions.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 328(5985), 1480; author reply 1480.
A journal article with 3 authors
Reinisch, K. M., Nibert, M. L., & Harrison, S. C. (2000). Structure of the reovirus core at 3.6 A resolution. Nature, 404(6781), 960–967.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Chen, J., Perebeinos, V., Freitag, M., Tsang, J., Fu, Q., Liu, J., & Avouris, P. (2005). Bright infrared emission from electrically induced excitons in carbon nanotubes. Science (New York, N.Y.), 310(5751), 1171–1174.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hens, H. (2012). Building Physics: Heat, Air and Moisture. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Knudson-Martin, C., Wells, M. A., & Samman, S. K. (Eds.). (2015). Socio-Emotional Relationship Therapy: Bridging Emotion, Societal Context, and Couple Interaction. Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Davis, A. B. (2006). Effective Propagation Kernels in Structured Media with Broad Spatial Correlations, Illustration with Large-Scale Transport of Solar Photons Through Cloudy Atmospheres. In F. Graziani (Ed.), Computational Methods in Transport: Granlibakken 2004 (pp. 85–140). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for National Identities.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, October 12). Prominent Astronomy Professor Accused Of Repeatedly Sexually Harassing Students. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2001). FTS 2001 Implementation Issues (GAO-01-855R). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Murdock, M. (2010). Memoir as contemporary myth [Doctoral dissertation]. Pacifica Graduate Institute.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M. W. (2011, October 31). Robert A. Pritzker, 85; Led Family Business. New York Times, B8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Colliex, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Colliex, 2012; Yu & Broecker, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Yu & Broecker, 2010)
  • Three authors: (Reinisch et al., 2000)
  • 6 or more authors: (Chen et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleNational Identities
ISSN (print)1460-8944
ISSN (online)1469-9907
General Earth and Planetary Sciences
General Environmental Science

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