How to format your references using the National Identities citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for National Identities. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Malakoff, D. (2000). MARINE ENVIRONMENT: Clinton Creates Huge Hawaiian Coral Haven. Science (New York, N.Y.), 290(5498), 1873b.
A journal article with 2 authors
Walker, A. W., & Parkhill, J. (2013). Microbiology. Fighting obesity with bacteria. Science (New York, N.Y.), 341(6150), 1069–1070.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cheung, V. G., Sherman, S. L., & Feingold, E. (2010). Genetics. Genetic control of hotspots. Science (New York, N.Y.), 327(5967), 791–792.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Seo, J.-S., Jeon, J.-H., Hwang, Y. H., Park, H., Ryu, M., Park, S.-H. K., & Bae, B.-S. (2013). Solution-processed flexible fluorine-doped indium zinc oxide thin-film transistors fabricated on plastic film at low temperature. Scientific Reports, 3, 2085.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lewis, S. (2016). Positive Psychology and Change. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Montoya, I. D. (Ed.). (2016). Biologics to Treat Substance Use Disorders: Vaccines, Monoclonal Antibodies, and Enzymes. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Perlin, H. A., & Lopes, H. S. (2013). A Genetic Programming Approach for Image Segmentation. In A. Chatterjee & P. Siarry (Eds.), Computational Intelligence in Image Processing (pp. 71–90). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for National Identities.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2016, December 27). Plans Are Under Way To Contact Any Aliens Around Nearby Stars. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1984). Observations on the FBI’s Interstate Identification Index (No. GGD-85-4). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Subbarao, S. (2015). An 8-PSK super regenerative receiver: Design and simulation (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. (2007, May 1). Court Backs Police Officers In Chase That Hurt Driver. New York Times, p. A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Malakoff, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Malakoff, 2000; Walker & Parkhill, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Walker & Parkhill, 2013)
  • Three authors: (Cheung, Sherman, & Feingold, 2010)
  • 6 or more authors: (Seo et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleNational Identities
ISSN (print)1460-8944
ISSN (online)1469-9907
General Earth and Planetary Sciences
General Environmental Science

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