How to format your references using the National Identities citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for National Identities. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Koenig, R. (2000). HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS: Bulgarians Sue CERN for Leniency. Science (New York, N.Y.), 290(5490), 252.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wolff, E. W., & British Antarctic Survey, High Cross, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0ET, UK. (2003). Ocean science. Whither Antarctic sea ice? Science (New York, N.Y.), 302(5648), 1164.
A journal article with 3 authors
Suma, K., Sumiyoshi, Y., & Endo, Y. (2005). The rotational spectrum and structure of the HOOO radical. Science (New York, N.Y.), 308(5730), 1885–1886.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Al-Khatib, S. M., Califf, R. M., Hasselblad, V., Alexander, J. H., McCrory, D. C., & Sugarman, J. (2001). Medicine. Placebo-controls in short-term clinical trials of hypertension. Science (New York, N.Y.), 292(5524), 2013–2015.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Matlock, M. D., & Morgan, R. A. (2011). Ecological Engineering Design. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Murphy, C., & Scantlebury, K. (Eds.). (2010). Coteaching in International Contexts: Research and Practice (Vol. 1). Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Polleres, A. (2012). How (Well) Do Datalog, SPARQL and RIF Interplay? In P. Barceló & R. Pichler (Eds.), Datalog in Academia and Industry: Second International Workshop, Datalog 2.0, Vienna, Austria, September 11-13, 2012. Proceedings (pp. 27–30). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for National Identities.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2016, August 11). Tiny Teeth In Corkscrew Poop Show Ancient Sharks Were Cannibalizing Their Young. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1994). Surface Transportation: Tight Budget Environment Requires Sound Investment Strategy (T-RCED-94-146). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Finnegan, R. J. (2010). Information food webs: A quantitative inquiry using a biological food web methodology [Doctoral dissertation]. Capella University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg, B. (2017, June 1). One Injured Player Comes to Another’s Aid, but Now Murray Looms. New York Times, B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Koenig, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Koenig, 2000; Wolff & British Antarctic Survey, High Cross, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0ET, UK., 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wolff & British Antarctic Survey, High Cross, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0ET, UK., 2003)
  • Three authors: (Suma et al., 2005)
  • 6 or more authors: (Al-Khatib et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleNational Identities
ISSN (print)1460-8944
ISSN (online)1469-9907
General Earth and Planetary Sciences
General Environmental Science

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