How to format your references using the National Identities citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for National Identities. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Macilwain, C. (2003). Human cloning claim sparks fear of Senate backlash. Nature, 421(6918), 3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rowley, J. J. L., & Alford, R. A. (2013). Hot bodies protect amphibians against chytrid infection in nature. Scientific Reports, 3, 1515.
A journal article with 3 authors
Copley, A., Avouac, J.-P., & Wernicke, B. P. (2011). Evidence for mechanical coupling and strong Indian lower crust beneath southern Tibet. Nature, 472(7341), 79–81.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Navarre, W. W., Porwollik, S., Wang, Y., McClelland, M., Rosen, H., Libby, S. J., & Fang, F. C. (2006). Selective silencing of foreign DNA with low GC content by the H-NS protein in Salmonella. Science (New York, N.Y.), 313(5784), 236–238.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ndjountche, T. (2016). Digital Electronics 3. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Athanas, P., Pnevmatikatos, D., & Sklavos, N. (Eds.). (2013). Embedded Systems Design with FPGAs. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Wang, Y., Wang, H., Li, J., & Gao, H. (2016). Efficient Influence Maximization in Weighted Independent Cascade Model. In S. B. Navathe, W. Wu, S. Shekhar, X. Du, S. X. Wang, & H. Xiong (Eds.), Database Systems for Advanced Applications: 21st International Conference, DASFAA 2016, Dallas, TX, USA, April 16-19, 2016, Proceedings, Part II (pp. 49–64). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for National Identities.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2015, March 6). Britain’s Oldest Surviving Human Brain Was Preserved In Mud For 2,600 Years. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1998). Status Information: FAA’s Year 2000 Business Continuity and Contingency Planning Efforts Are Ongoing (AIMD-99-40R). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hitchings, J. D. (2008). Teachers’ perceptions of evidence-based decision making: A case study of three schools in British Columbia [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K. (2001, May 13). Writers Are Halted Mid-Sentence as a Y Cancels Classes. New York Times, 147.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Macilwain, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Macilwain, 2003; Rowley & Alford, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rowley & Alford, 2013)
  • Three authors: (Copley et al., 2011)
  • 6 or more authors: (Navarre et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleNational Identities
ISSN (print)1460-8944
ISSN (online)1469-9907
General Earth and Planetary Sciences
General Environmental Science

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