How to format your references using the National Identities citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for National Identities. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Tawfik, D. S. (2006). Biochemistry. Loop grafting and the origins of enzyme species. Science (New York, N.Y.), 311(5760), 475–476.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bshary, R., & Grutter, A. S. (2006). Image scoring and cooperation in a cleaner fish mutualism. Nature, 441(7096), 975–978.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hu, H., Martina, M., & Jonas, P. (2010). Dendritic mechanisms underlying rapid synaptic activation of fast-spiking hippocampal interneurons. Science (New York, N.Y.), 327(5961), 52–58.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Prusinkiewicz, P., Erasmus, Y., Lane, B., Harder, L. D., & Coen, E. (2007). Evolution and development of inflorescence architectures. Science (New York, N.Y.), 316(5830), 1452–1456.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Buchstaller, I. (2013). Quotatives. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Taniar, D., Gervasi, O., Murgante, B., Pardede, E., & Apduhan, B. O. (Eds.). (2010). Computational Science and Its Applications – ICCSA 2010: International Conference, Fukuoka, Japan, March 23-26, 2010, Proceedings, Part I (Vol. 6016). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Beckner, M., & Arisawa, T. (2013). JScript and the REST Endpoint API. In T. Arisawa (Ed.), Microsoft Dynamics CRM API Development for Online and On-Premise Environments (pp. 47–60). Apress.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for National Identities.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2014, September 26). One Bacteria Species Became Two While Inside An Insect. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2007). Next Generation Air Transportation System: Progress and Challenges in Planning and Implementing the Transformation of the National Airspace System (GAO-07-649T). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Powell, J. R. (2013). Ocean fronts in the Southern California Current System and their role in structuring zooplankton distributions, diel vertical migration, and size composition [Doctoral dissertation]. University of California San Diego.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, K. (2006, October 8). QUICK BITE | Chester; Cider, From Doughnuts to Hot Dogs. New York Times, 14NJ19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Tawfik, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Bshary & Grutter, 2006; Tawfik, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bshary & Grutter, 2006)
  • Three authors: (Hu et al., 2010)
  • 6 or more authors: (Prusinkiewicz et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleNational Identities
ISSN (print)1460-8944
ISSN (online)1469-9907
General Earth and Planetary Sciences
General Environmental Science

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