How to format your references using the National Identities citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for National Identities. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Van Noorden, R. (2010). 2010 Gallery: images of the year. Nature, 468(7327), 1018.
A journal article with 2 authors
Denning, D. W., & Bromley, M. J. (2015). Infectious Disease. How to bolster the antifungal pipeline. Science (New York, N.Y.), 347(6229), 1414–1416.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lohrer, A. M., Thrush, S. F., & Gibbs, M. M. (2004). Bioturbators enhance ecosystem function through complex biogeochemical interactions. Nature, 431(7012), 1092–1095.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Siddiqa, A., Sims-Mourtada, J. C., Guzman-Rojas, L., Rangel, R., Guret, C., Madrid-Marina, V., Sun, Y., & Martinez-Valdez, H. (2001). Regulation of CD40 and CD40 ligand by the AT-hook transcription factor AKNA. Nature, 410(6826), 383–387.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wilmshurst, L. (2012). Clinical and Educational Child Psychology. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Trümper, J. E., & Hasinger, G. (Eds.). (2008). The Universe in X-Rays. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Reguero, M., Goin, F., Acosta Hospitaleche, C., Marenssi, S., & Dutra, T. (2013). South America/West Antarctica: Pacific Affinities of the Weddellian Marine/Coastal Vertebrates. In F. Goin, C. Acosta Hospitaleche, T. Dutra, & S. Marenssi (Eds.), Late Cretaceous/Paleogene West Antarctica Terrestrial Biota and its Intercontinental Affinities (pp. 27–54). Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for National Identities.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, April 16). Curing Baldness May Just Be About Having Enough Pluck. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1992). Federal Research: SEMATECH’s Technological Progress and Proposed R&D Program (RCED-92-223BR). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ratzlaff, K. (2012). Dynamics of chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) infection in amphibians in the Rincon Mountains and Tucson, Arizona [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Arizona.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Branch, J., & Weiser, B. (2014, September 10). Ex-Player Charged in Sale of Pills to Boogaard. New York Times, B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Van Noorden, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Denning & Bromley, 2015; Van Noorden, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Denning & Bromley, 2015)
  • Three authors: (Lohrer et al., 2004)
  • 6 or more authors: (Siddiqa et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleNational Identities
ISSN (print)1460-8944
ISSN (online)1469-9907
General Earth and Planetary Sciences
General Environmental Science

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