How to format your references using the Welding in the World citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Welding in the World. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Purnell B (2008) New release: the complete guide to organ repair. Introduction. Science 322:1489
A journal article with 2 authors
Armatas GS, Kanatzidis MG (2006) Hexagonal mesoporous germanium. Science 313:817–820
A journal article with 3 authors
Van Hoof C, Baert K, Witvrouw A (2004) Physics. The best materials for tiny, clever sensors. Science 306:986–987
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Blisniuk PM, Hacker BR, Glodny J, et al (2001) Normal faulting in central Tibet since at least 13.5 Myr ago. Nature 412:628–632

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Padova T (2011) Adobe® Acrobat® X PDF Bible. Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, IN, USA
An edited book
Atallah M, Li X-Y, Zhu B (2011) Frontiers in Algorithmics and Algorithmic Aspects in Information and Management: Joint International Conference, FAW-AAIM 2011, Jinhua, China, May 28-31, 2011. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Zanibbi R, Blostein D, Cordy JR (2008) Decision-Based Specification and Comparison of Table Recognition Algorithms. In: Marinai S, Fujisawa H (eds) Machine Learning in Document Analysis and Recognition. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 71–103

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Welding in the World.

Blog post
Rivett J (2017) Stephen Hawking Has Another Dire Warning For Humanity. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1987) Hazardous Weather Detection and Warning Systems. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bleviss C (2009) Constructing competence: Normalization and self-determination for people with developmental disabilities. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Anderson J (2013) Is This the Best Education Money Can Buy? New York Times MM46

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleWelding in the World
AbbreviationWeld. World
ISSN (print)0043-2288
ISSN (online)1878-6669
ScopeMechanical Engineering
Mechanics of Materials
Metals and Alloys

Other styles