How to format your references using the Welding in the World citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Welding in the World. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Gouverneur V (2009) Chemistry. A new departure in fluorination chemistry. Science 325:1630–1631
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Miroshnichenko AE, Kivshar YS (2013) Applied physics. Polarization traffic control for surface plasmons. Science 340:283–284
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Sasaki M, Takagi M, Okamura Y (2006) A voltage sensor-domain protein is a voltage-gated proton channel. Science 312:589–592
A journal article with 5 or more authors
1.
Barz S, Kassal I, Ringbauer M, et al (2014) A two-qubit photonic quantum processor and its application to solving systems of linear equations. Sci Rep 4:6115

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Walter RJ (1998) Practical Compliance with the EPA Risk Management Program. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
1.
Matoušek V, Mautner P (2009) Text, Speech and Dialogue: 12th International Conference, TSD 2009, Pilsen, Czech Republic, September 13-17, 2009. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Rhodes R (2005) Justice in Allocations for Terrorism, Biological Warfare, and Public Health. In: Boylan M (ed) Public Health Policy and Ethics. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 73–90

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Welding in the World.

Blog post
1.
Taub B (2016) How Presidential Candidates Use Their Voice As A Campaign Tool. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office (1999) Medicaid: Questionable Practices Boost Federal Payments for School-Based Services. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Aguirre BL (2010) The rise in pharmaceutical drug abuse among American adolescents. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Stewart JB (2017) Tax Reform for the Wealthy: Lower Rates but Lose Breaks. New York Times B1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleWelding in the World
AbbreviationWeld. World
ISSN (print)0043-2288
ISSN (online)1878-6669
ScopeMechanical Engineering
Mechanics of Materials
Metals and Alloys

Other styles