How to format your references using the IET Synthetic Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IET Synthetic Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Matsuda, R.: ‘Materials chemistry: Selectivity from flexibility’Nature, 2014, 509, (7501), pp. 434–435.
A journal article with 2 authors
Webb, J., Domanski, M.: ‘Paleontology. Fire and stone’Science, 2009, 325, (5942), pp. 820–821.
A journal article with 3 authors
Grima, J.N., Attard, D., Gatt, R.: ‘Materials science. Unusual thermoelastic properties of methanol monohydrate’Science, 2011, 331, (6018), pp. 687–688.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Nakano, R., Takanashi, T., Surlykke, A., Skals, N., Ishikawa, Y.: ‘Evolution of deceptive and true courtship songs in moths’Sci. Rep., 2013, 3, p. 2003.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kimberlin, L., zur Linden, A., Ruoff, L.: ‘Atlas of Clinical Imaging and Anatomy of the Equine Head’ (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2016)
An edited book
Lopez, J., Ray, I., Crispo, B. (Eds.): ‘Risks and Security of Internet and Systems: 9th International Conference, CRiSIS 2014, Trento, Italy, August 27-29, 2014, Revised Selected Papers’ (Springer International Publishing, 2015)
A chapter in an edited book
Lees, A.W.: ‘Recent Advances and Prospects in Condition Monitoring’, in Sinha, J.K. (Ed.): ‘Vibration Engineering and Technology of Machinery: Proceedings of VETOMAC X 2014, held at the University of Manchester, UK, September 9-11, 2014’ (Springer International Publishing, 2015), pp. 51–63

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IET Synthetic Biology.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: ‘Huge Solar Storm Produces Spectacular Northern Lights’,, accessed October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: ‘Travel System Requirements’ (U.S. Government Printing Office, 1999)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Long, R.E.: ‘Performance Assessment of Predicted Heat Strain in High Heat Stress Exposures’. Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida, 2011

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Alderman, L.: ‘Europe Surveys the Gig Economy And Wants Worker Safeguards’New York Times, 2017, p. B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [2, 4].
This sentence cites four references [2, 4, 6, 8].

About the journal

Full journal titleIET Synthetic Biology
ISSN (print)1752-1394
Cell Biology
Molecular Biology

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