How to format your references using the Ecological Processes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ecological Processes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sutcliffe JS (2008) Genetics. Insights into the pathogenesis of autism. Science 321:208–209
A journal article with 2 authors
Jones RH, Flynn KJ (2005) Nutritional status and diet composition affect the value of diatoms as copepod prey. Science 307:1457–1459
A journal article with 3 authors
Friis EM, Pedersen KR, Crane PR (2001) Fossil evidence of water lilies (Nymphaeales) in the Early Cretaceous. Nature 410:357–360
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Palacios IM, Gatfield D, St Johnston D, Izaurralde E (2004) An eIF4AIII-containing complex required for mRNA localization and nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. Nature 427:753–757

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stacey WM (2010) Fusion. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany
An edited book
Chadwick D, Zhao G (eds) (2005) Public Key Infrastructure: Second European PKI Workshop: Research and Applications, EuroPKI 2005, Canterbury, UK, June 30 - July 1, 2005, Revised Selected Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Fugini M, Maggiolini P, Vallès RS (2013) Public Innovative ICT Based Employment Services Success Factors. In: Spagnoletti P (ed) Organizational Change and Information Systems: Working and Living Together in New Ways. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 41–49

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ecological Processes.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Promising HIV Therapy So Effective It Could Be Used As A Vaccine. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1988) [Comments on Protection of Pricing Information Under GSA Procurement for Telecommunications Services]. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ghafoori E (2014) Wavelet transform and neural network. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly M (1992) Clinton Chats With Reagan, Then Heads Out to the Mall. New York Times 17

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sutcliffe 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Jones and Flynn 2005; Sutcliffe 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jones and Flynn 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Palacios et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcological Processes
AbbreviationEcol. Process.
ISSN (online)2192-1709

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