How to format your references using the Ecological Processes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ecological Processes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Perkins K (2014) For the love of ferns. Science 346:1586
A journal article with 2 authors
Christensen ST, Ott CM (2007) Cell signaling. A ciliary signaling switch. Science 317:330–331
A journal article with 3 authors
McDougall I, Brown FH, Fleagle JG (2005) Stratigraphic placement and age of modern humans from Kibish, Ethiopia. Nature 433:733–736
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Massimini M, Ferrarelli F, Huber R, et al (2005) Breakdown of cortical effective connectivity during sleep. Science 309:2228–2232

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Southard TE, Marshall SD, Bonner LL (2015) Orthodontics in the Vertical Dimension. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Sericola B, Telek M, Horváth G (eds) (2014) Analytical and Stochastic Modeling Techniques and Applications: 21st International Conference, ASMTA 2014, Budapest, Hungary, June 30 – July 2, 2014. Proceedings. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Pitts S, Gordon CM (2016) Indications for DXA in Children and Adolescents. In: Fung EB, Bachrach LK, Sawyer AJ (eds) Bone Health Assessment in Pediatrics: Guidelines for Clinical Practice. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 75–87

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ecological Processes.

Blog post
Davis J (2016) Poachers Kill Habituated Gorilla In Central Africa. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1977) Reevaluation Needed of Educational Assistance for Institutionalized Neglected or Delinquent Children. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Okafor-Dike LC (2008) The effect of leadership on economic development: A case study of Nigeria. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J (2016) Mets’ Starter Fails to Last 2 Innings, and He May Not Get to Go Any Longer. New York Times B11

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Perkins 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Christensen and Ott 2007; Perkins 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Christensen and Ott 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Massimini et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcological Processes
AbbreviationEcol. Process.
ISSN (online)2192-1709

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