How to format your references using the Ecological Processes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ecological Processes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cyranoski D (2001) Ecologists score victory over controversial dyke project. Nature 410:619
A journal article with 2 authors
Southwick SM, Charney DS (2012) The science of resilience: implications for the prevention and treatment of depression. Science 338:79–82
A journal article with 3 authors
Martin WF, Sousa FL, Lane N (2014) Evolution. Energy at life’s origin. Science 344:1092–1093
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Bökel C, Schwabedissen A, Entchev E, et al (2006) Sara endosomes and the maintenance of Dpp signaling levels across mitosis. Science 314:1135–1139

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Taroni F, Biedermann A, Bozza S, et al (2014) Bayesian Networks for Probabilistic Inference and Decision Analysis in Forensic Science. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Natkin S, Dupire J (eds) (2009) Entertainment Computing – ICEC 2009: 8th International Conference, Paris, France, September 3-5, 2009. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Castillo K, Marcellán F (2015) On Some Recent Results on Asymptotic Behavior of Orthogonal Polynomials on the Unit Circle and Inserting Point Masses. In: Daras NJ, Rassias MT (eds) Computation, Cryptography, and Network Security. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 75–101

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ecological Processes.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) 3D Vaccine Self-Assembles To Fight Cancer and Infectious Disease. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1995) Direct Student Loans. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Foster HC (2017) The effect of droplet size and sprayer type on physical drift. Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Bennhold K, de la MERCED MJ (2017) Uber Leader, in Visit to London, Appeals to Regain Operating License. New York Times B6

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cyranoski 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Cyranoski 2001; Southwick and Charney 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Southwick and Charney 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Bökel et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcological Processes
AbbreviationEcol. Process.
ISSN (online)2192-1709

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