How to format your references using the Weed Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Weed Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
van Deursen JM (2014) The role of senescent cells in ageing. Nature 509:439–446
A journal article with 2 authors
Rossky PJ, Walker GC (2010) Retrospective. Paul F. Barbara (1953-2010). Science 330:1191
A journal article with 3 authors
van Zuilen MA, Lepland A, Arrhenius G (2002) Reassessing the evidence for the earliest traces of life. Nature 418:627–630
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Yamane Y, Hemmatiyan S, Ieda J, Maekawa S, Sinova J (2014) Spinmotive force due to motion of magnetic bubble arrays driven by magnetic field gradient. Sci Rep 4:6901

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Arboleda H, Royer J-C (2012) Model-Driven and Software Product Line Engineering. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Borrego C, Norman A-L, eds. (2007) Air Pollution Modeling and Its Application XVII. Boston, MA: Springer US. XIX, 744 p p
A chapter in an edited book
Krasniansky GL (2016) Coal in the economy of Russia. Pages 35–40 in V Litvinenko, ed. XVIII International Coal Preparation Congress: 28 June—01 July 2016 Saint-Petersburg, Russia. Cham: Springer International Publishing

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Weed Science.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Why Do Men Have Nipples? IFLScience. Accessed October 30, 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2011) IT Dashboard: Accuracy Has Improved, and Additional Efforts Are Under Way to Better Inform Decision Making. GAO-12-210. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jakubowski JK (2013) Making character education a reality: An investigation of secondary teachers’ perspectives toward implementation. Doctoral dissertation. Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg B (2017) Dueling Frenchwomen Show Signs of a Thaw After Their Chilly Match. New York Times:B8

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (van Deursen 2014).
This sentence cites two references (van Deursen 2014, Rossky and Walker 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rossky and Walker 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Yamane et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleWeed Science
AbbreviationWeed Sci.
ISSN (print)0043-1745
ISSN (online)1550-2759
ScopeAgronomy and Crop Science
Plant Science

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