How to format your references using the Weed Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Weed Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chipman A (2007) London calling. Nature 447:367
A journal article with 2 authors
Cuffey KM, Vimeux F (2001) Covariation of carbon dioxide and temperature from the Vostok ice core after deuterium-excess correction. Nature 412:523–527
A journal article with 3 authors
Egholm DL, Knudsen MF, Sandiford M (2013) Lifespan of mountain ranges scaled by feedbacks between landsliding and erosion by rivers. Nature 498:475–478
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Crook R, Prance J, Thomas KJ, Chorley SJ, Farrer I, Ritchie DA, Pepper M, Smith CG (2006) Conductance quantization at a half-integer plateau in a symmetric GaAs quantum wire. Science 312:1359–1362

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Moeller RR (2013) Executive’s Guide to IT Governance. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Bock HG, Carraro T, Jäger W, Körkel S, Rannacher R, Schlöder JP, eds. (2013) Model Based Parameter Estimation: Theory and Applications. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer. X, 334 p. 83 illus., 26 illus. in color p
A chapter in an edited book
Gorobchuk A (2015) Numerical Model of Plasma-Chemical Etching of Silicon in $CF_4/H_2$ Plasma. Pages 44–52 in N Danaev, Y Shokin, A-Z Darkhan, eds. Mathematical Modeling of Technological Processes: 8th International Conference, CITech 2015, Almaty, Kazakhstan, September 24-27, 2015, Proceedings. Cham: Springer International Publishing

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Weed Science.

Blog post
Luntz S (2016) Australia’s “No Jab, No Pay” Vaccination Policy Seems To Be Working. IFLScience. Accessed October 30, 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1993) Student Achievement Standards and Testing. T-PEMD-93-1. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Collins JW (2015) An Examination of Chronic Absenteeism as Related to Performance on End-of-Year Missouri State Assessments. Doctoral dissertation. St. Charles, MO: Lindenwood University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg B (2017) She Beat Her Stresses. Now Can She Beat Venus? New York Times:B9

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Chipman 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Chipman 2007, Cuffey and Vimeux 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cuffey and Vimeux 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Crook et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleWeed Science
AbbreviationWeed Sci.
ISSN (print)0043-1745
ISSN (online)1550-2759
ScopeAgronomy and Crop Science
Plant Science

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