How to format your references using the Weed Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Weed Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Manolopoulos DE (2002) Reaction dynamics. Bending or breaking the rules? Science 296:664
A journal article with 2 authors
Moore JN, Simmons SF (2013) Geophysics. More power from below. Science 340:933–934
A journal article with 3 authors
Millonig JH, Millen KJ, Hatten ME (2000) The mouse Dreher gene Lmx1a controls formation of the roof plate in the vertebrate CNS. Nature 403:764–769
A journal article with 4 or more authors
D’Oriano C, Bertagnini A, Cioni R, Pompilio M (2014) Identifying recycled ash in basaltic eruptions. Sci Rep 4:5851

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ursone P (2015) How to Calculate Options Prices and Their Greeks. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
An edited book
Meersman R, Tari Z, Herrero P, eds. (2007) On the Move to Meaningful Internet Systems 2007: OTM 2007 Workshops: OTM Confederated International Workshops and Posters, AWeSOMe, CAMS, OTM Academy Doctoral Consortium, MONET, OnToContent, ORM, PerSys, PPN, RDDS, SSWS, and SWWS 2007, Vilamoura, Portugal, November 25-30, 2007, Proceedings, Part II. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer. XXVII, 610 p p
A chapter in an edited book
Christoph A (2014) Media-Related Aspects of Popularization: The Geographical Serials from the Publishing Houses of Friedrich Justin Bertuch. Pages 57–69 in E Liebenberg, P Collier, ZG Török, eds. History of Cartography: International Symposium of the ICA, 2012. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Weed Science.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J (2016) Secrets Of How Earth’s Aurorae Are Produced Revealed By NASA Spacecraft. IFLScience. Accessed October 30, 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2013) GPS Disruptions: Efforts to Assess Risks to Critical Infrastructure and Coordinate Agency Actions Should Be Enhanced. GAO-14-15. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pratt JE (2014) Investigating educational systems, leadership, and school culture: A holistic approach. Doctoral dissertation. Phoenix, AZ: University of Phoenix

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon M (2014) Encore, for the Curlers and Their Pants. New York Times:B15

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Manolopoulos 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Manolopoulos 2002, Moore and Simmons 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Moore and Simmons 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (D’Oriano et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleWeed Science
AbbreviationWeed Sci.
ISSN (print)0043-1745
ISSN (online)1550-2759
ScopeAgronomy and Crop Science
Plant Science

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