How to format your references using the Weed Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Weed Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Balter M (2000) SPONGIFORM DISEASE: Experts Downplay New vCJD Fears. Science 289:1663b–6b
A journal article with 2 authors
de Graaf J, Manna L (2012) Materials science. A roadmap for the assembly of polyhedral particles. Science 337:417–418
A journal article with 3 authors
Noskov SY, Bernèche S, Roux B (2004) Control of ion selectivity in potassium channels by electrostatic and dynamic properties of carbonyl ligands. Nature 431:830–834
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Nair RR, Blake P, Grigorenko AN, Novoselov KS, Booth TJ, Stauber T, Peres NMR, Geim AK (2008) Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene. Science 320:1308

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pasher E, Ronen T (2011) The Complete Guide to Knowledge Management. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Bartel A, Clemens M, Günther M, ter Maten EJW, eds. (2016) Scientific Computing in Electrical Engineering: SCEE 2014, Wuppertal, Germany, July 2014. Cham: Springer International Publishing. XI, 256 p. 125 illus., 67 illus. in color p
A chapter in an edited book
Hosseini S, Ibrahim F (2016) Application of Biochips in Dengue Virus Detection. Pages 39–47 in F Ibrahim, ed. Novel Polymeric Biochips for Enhanced Detection of Infectious Diseases. Singapore: Springer

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Weed Science.

Blog post
Luntz S (2014) Astronomers Find Evidence Of Two Undiscovered Planets In Our Solar System. IFLScience. Accessed October 30, 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2004) Electronic Government: Federal Agencies Have Made Progress Implementing the E-Government Act of 2002. GAO-05-12. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Paaske LK (2014) AVPV kisspeptin neurons mediate neuroprogesterone induction of the luteinizing hormone surge. Doctoral dissertation. Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard B (2017) Dozens Said To Be Killed In Bombing Of ISIS Prison. New York Times:A11

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Balter 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Balter 2000, de Graaf and Manna 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (de Graaf and Manna 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Nair et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleWeed Science
AbbreviationWeed Sci.
ISSN (print)0043-1745
ISSN (online)1550-2759
ScopeAgronomy and Crop Science
Plant Science

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