How to format your references using the Weed Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Weed Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mercader J (2009) Mozambican grass seed consumption during the Middle Stone Age. Science 326:1680–1683
A journal article with 2 authors
Buss JA, Agapie T (2016) Four-electron deoxygenative reductive coupling of carbon monoxide at a single metal site. Nature 529:72–75
A journal article with 3 authors
Hinrichs K-U, Hmelo LR, Sylva SP (2003) Molecular fossil record of elevated methane levels in late Pleistocene coastal waters. Science 299:1214–1217
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zhai Y, Pierre D, Si R, Deng W, Ferrin P, Nilekar AU, Peng G, Herron JA, Bell DC, Saltsburg H, Mavrikakis M, Flytzani-Stephanopoulos M (2010) Alkali-stabilized Pt-OHx species catalyze low-temperature water-gas shift reactions. Science 329:1633–1636

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Maudlin T (2011) Quantum Non-Locality and Relativity. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell
An edited book
Mohanty H, Bhuyan P, Chenthati D, eds. (2015) Big Data: A Primer. New Delhi: Springer India. XIV, 184 p. 48 illus., 42 illus. in color p
A chapter in an edited book
Bandyopadhyay B, Deepak F, Kim K-S (2009) Integral Sliding Mode Based Composite Nonlinear Feedback Control. Pages 83–95 in F Deepak, K-S Kim, eds. Sliding Mode Control Using Novel Sliding Surfaces. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Weed Science.

Blog post
Andrew D (2016) Ice And Speed, The Drugs That Kept Soldiers Awake And A President Young. IFLScience. Accessed October 30, 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1984) A List of Selected GAO Publications Containing Checklists or Guidance on Computer Software Topics. 125250. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stahl-Kovell DW (2014) Reimagining red power: Native American community, activism, and academics in postwar America. Doctoral dissertation. Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pipher M (2014) Nebraska’s Lonely Progressives. New York Times:A17

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Mercader 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Buss and Agapie 2016, Mercader 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Buss and Agapie 2016)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhai et al. 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleWeed Science
AbbreviationWeed Sci.
ISSN (print)0043-1745
ISSN (online)1550-2759
ScopeAgronomy and Crop Science
Plant Science

Other styles