How to format your references using the Weed Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Weed Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wilcken B (2013) Medicine. Newborn screening: gaps in the evidence. Science 342:197–198
A journal article with 2 authors
Park Y, Kuroda MI (2001) Epigenetic aspects of X-chromosome dosage compensation. Science 293:1083–1085
A journal article with 3 authors
Dong X, Wang Y, Xia Y (2014) Re-building Daniell cell with a Li-ion exchange film. Sci Rep 4:6916
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kitchen D, Richardella A, Tang J-M, Flatté ME, Yazdani A (2006) Atom-by-atom substitution of Mn in GaAs and visualization of their hole-mediated interactions. Nature 442:436–439

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Misstear B, Banks D, Clark L (2006) Water Wells and Boreholes. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
An edited book
Prabhu V, Taisch M, Kiritsis D, eds. (2013) Advances in Production Management Systems. Sustainable Production and Service Supply Chains: IFIP WG 5.7 International Conference, APMS 2013, State College, PA, USA, September 9-12, 2013, Proceedings, Part II. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer. XXIV, 604 p. 190 illus p
A chapter in an edited book
Einav I, Nguyen GD (2009) Micromechanical alternatives to phenomenological hardening plasticity. Pages 85–104 in D Kolymbas, G Viggiani, eds. Mechanics of Natural Solids. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Weed Science.

Blog post
Carpineti A (2016) Watch A “Ring Of Fire” Solar Eclipse Live From Africa. IFLScience. Accessed October 30, 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2016) DOD Major Automated Information Systems: Improvements Can Be Made in Reporting Critical Changes and Clarifying Leadership Responsibility. GAO-16-336. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Aghaee M (2016) Analysis of Dynamics and Optimal Control for an SIR Epidemiological Model with Time-varying Populations. Doctoral dissertation. Edwardsville, IL: Southern Illinois University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shpigel B, Schonbrun Z (2017) Northwestern Makes Its Debut a Winning One. New York Times:B8

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wilcken 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Park and Kuroda 2001, Wilcken 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Park and Kuroda 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Kitchen et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleWeed Science
AbbreviationWeed Sci.
ISSN (print)0043-1745
ISSN (online)1550-2759
ScopeAgronomy and Crop Science
Plant Science

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